Vol. 61 No. 2 (2022)
Articles

Alternaria species and related mycotoxin detection in Lebanese durum wheat grain

Mario MASIELLO
Institute of Science of Food Production - ISPA, Research National Council – CNR
Romy EL GHORAYEB
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik
Stefania SOMMA
Institute of Science of Food Production - ISPA, Research National Council – CNR
Carine SAAB
3Laboratory of Mycology, Department of Plant Protection, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute
Giuseppe MECA
4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nutrition and Food Science Area, University of Valencia
Antonio F. LOGRIECO
Institute of Science of Food Production - ISPA, Research National Council – CNR
Wassim HABIB
Centro di Ricerca, Sperimentazione e Formazione in Agricoltura ‘Basile Caramia’ - CRSFA, Via Cisternino 281, Locorotondo 70010 Bari
Antonio MORETTI
Institute of Science of Food Production - ISPA, Research National Council – CNR
Published September 15, 2022
Keywords
  • Multi-locus gene sequencing,
  • toxigenic fungi,
  • Alternaria,
  • Ulocladioides,
  • Chalastospora,
  • Pseudoalternaria,
  • Infectoriae
  • ...More
    Less
How to Cite
[1]
M. MASIELLO, “Alternaria species and related mycotoxin detection in Lebanese durum wheat grain”, Phytopathol. Mediterr., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 383-393, Sep. 2022.

Abstract

Alternaria is a ubiquitous genus that may infect wheat in many countries, causing the disease black point. The present study aimed to assess contamination by fungi, of durum wheat kernels from Lebanon, and identify the main Alternaria species contaminants. Alternaria was detected in the majority (97%) of the inspected fields. Contamination by Alternaria differed among the samples according to their geographical origins. The greatest contamination was detected in the West Bekaa area (average 59%), followed by Akkar (55%), and lowest was observed in Baalbeck (2%). HPLC-DAD analyses performed on grain samples showed that altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tenuazonic acid were not detected in any sample. Phylogenetic analyses, based on DNA sequences of β-tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and calmodulin gene fragments, showed that Alternaria field strains belonged to two major sections: Alternaria (51%) and Infectoriae (40%). The remaining strains were in separate clades in sections Ulocladioides (3%), Chalastospora (3%) and Pseudoalternaria (3%). Although this study revealed no contamination of wheat kernels by Alternaria mycotoxins, the potential risk of mycotoxin accumulation remains high due to the widespread occurrence of toxigenic Alternaria species on kernels.

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