Vol. 61 No. 3 (2022): including the "60th MPU Anniversary Special Section"
60th MPU Anniversary Special Section - Review

Fungal trunk diseases of fruit trees in Europe: pathogens, spread and future directions

Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (DISAFA), University of Torino, Largo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, TO
Christian KRAUS
Julius Kühn-Institute, Federal Research Centre of Cultivated Plants, Plant Protection in Fruit Crops and Viticulture, 76833 Siebeldingen
Emmanouil MARKAKIS
Institute of Olive Tree, Subtropical Crops and Viticulture, Hellenic Agricultural Organization - DIMITRA, 32A Kastorias street, Mesa Katsabas 71307, Heraklion, Crete
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro
Instituto Agroforestal Mediterráneo, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera S/N, 46022-Valencia
Mendeleum – Institute of Genetics, Mendel University in Brno, Valtická 334, 691 44 Lednice
Stephane COMPANT
AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Center for Health and Bioresources, Bioresources Unit, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln
Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (ICVV), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad de la Rioja, Gobierno de La Rioja, Ctra. LO-20 Salida 13, 26007, Logroño

Published 2023-01-13


  • Wood cankers,
  • dieback,
  • Botryosphaeriaceae,
  • abiotic factors,
  • epidemiology

How to Cite

V. GUARNACCIA, “Fungal trunk diseases of fruit trees in Europe: pathogens, spread and future directions”, Phytopathol. Mediterr., vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 563–599, Jan. 2023.


Production from crops of pome, stone fruit, nut, berry fruit, citrus, grapevine, and olive is increasingly threatened by fungal trunk diseases (FTD). These diseases and the consequent production losses are major problems. Many fungi (including Botryosphaeriaceae, Calosphaeriaceae, Diaporthaceae, Diatrypaceae, Nectriaceae, Phaeomoniellaceae, Pleosporaceae, Togniniaceae, Valsaceae) infect host wood, mainly through wounds and subsequent colonization of woody tissues, causing symptoms such as cankers, gummosis, wood rotting, blight and dieback. Propagative plant material, seedlings and fruit play a significant role in pathogen spread. Several abiotic factors (e.g. shifts in cultural practices and climate change) are involved in the disease development. This paper reviews recent literature on FTD of fruit crops, particularly focusing on the European status of pathogen occurrence. Case studies are described related to diseases of apple, citrus, grapevine, berry, nut and stone fruit, and olive trees. Aspects related to epidemiology and the increase in disease incidence along with the future perspectives on the FTD research are also discussed.


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