Fomitiporia mediterranea M. Fisch., the historical Esca agent: a comprehensive review on the main grapevine wood rot agent in Europe
- white rot,
- wood symptoms,
- foliar symptoms
Copyright (c) 2021 Samuele MORETTI, Andrea PACETTI, Romain PIERRON, Hanns-Heinz KASSEMEYER, Michael FISCHER, Jean-Pierre PÉROS, Gabriel PEREZ-GONZALEZ, Evie BIELER, Marion SCHILLING, Stefano DI MARCO, Eric GELHAYE, Laura MUGNAI, Chritophe BERTSCH, Sibylle FARINE
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Fomitiporia mediterranea M. Fisch. (Fmed) is a basidiomycete first described in 2002, and was considered up to then as part of Fomitiporia punctata (P. Karst) Murrill. This fungus can degrade lignocellulosic biomass, causing white rot and leaving bleached fibrous host residues. In Europe Fmed is considered the main grapevine wood rot (Esca) agent within the Esca disease complex, which includes some of the most economically important Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTDs). This review summarises and evaluates published research on Fmed, on white rot elimination by curettage or management by treatments with specific products applied to diseased grapevines, and on the relationship between wood symptoms and Grapevine Leaf Stripe Disease (GLSD) in the Esca disease complex. Information is also reviewed on the fungus biology, mechanisms of pathogenicity, and their possible relationships with external foliar symptoms of the Esca disease complex. Information on Fmed control strategies is also reviewed.