Vol. 61 No. 2 (2022)

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes bacterial canker on Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica)

Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture Afagh Higher Education Institute, Urmia
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia
Heshmatollah RAHIMIAN
Department of Plant Protection, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mazandaran, Sari
Emanuela NORIS
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy (IPSP-CNR), 10135 Turin
Slavica Matić
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy (IPSP-CNR), 10135 Turin

Published 2022-09-15


  • Maule’s quince,
  • rpoD,
  • BOX-PCR,
  • REP-PCR,
  • IS50-PCR

How to Cite

T. ALLAHVERDIPOUR, M. RASTGOU, H. RAHIMIAN, E. NORIS, and S. Matić, “Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes bacterial canker on Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica)”, Phytopathol. Mediterr., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 371–382, Sep. 2022.


Japanese quince trees are grown as ornamental plants in Iran, in parks and in orchards close to stone fruit and pome fruit trees. Shoots of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) showing sunken brown canker symptoms were observed and collected near Sari, the center of Mazandaran province in the North of Iran, during the 2016 growing season. Gram negative bacteria isolated from symptomatic tissues were similar to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) were pathogenic on Japanese quince and on quince (Cydonia oblonga) seedlings after artificial inoculation, and were re-isolated from diseased hosts. Phylogenetic tree construction using partial sequences of ITS and rpoD genes showed that the Japanese quince isolates were in the same clade as Pss strains. The isolates had ice nucleation activity, and the InaK gene was amplified successfully. According to the results of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, genomic DNA fingerprinting using REP-PCR, BOX-PCR and IS50-PCR and isolation of total cell proteins, we conclude that Pss is the causal agent of canker of the Japanese quince trees. Therefore, Japanese quince is a new host for Pss causing bacterial canker on many different host plants.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Abdellatif, E., Kałużna, M., Ferrante, P., Scortichini, M., Bahri, B., Janse, J. D., Van Vaerenberg, J., Baeyen, S., Sobiczewski, P., & Rhouma, A. 2020. Phylogenetic, genetic, and phenotypic diversity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from citrus blast and black pit in Tunisia. Plant Pathology 69: 1414–1425. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.13244.
Aeini, M., & Khodakaramian, Gh. 2018. Rhizosphere bacterial composition of the sugar beet using SDS-PAGE methodology. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 60: 1-13.
Ahmadvand, R., & Rahimian, H. 2005. Study of phenotypic and electrophoretic diversity of Pectobacterium species infecting corn in Mazandaran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 41: 271-289 (In Persian with English Summary).
Ausubel, F.M., Brent, R., Kingstone, E., Moore, D.D., & Seidmann, J.G. 1996. Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Ayers, S.H., Rupp, P., & Johnson, W.T. 1919. A study of the alkali forming bacteria. Milk US Department of Agriculture Bulletin. 782.
Bahar, M., Mojtahedi, H., & Akhiani, A. 1982. Bacterial canker of apricot in Isfahan. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 18: 58-68
Banapour, A., Zakiee, Z., & Amani, G. 1990. Isolation of Pseudomonas syringae from sweet cherry in Tehran province Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 26: 67-72
Basavand, E., Khodaygan, P., Rahimian, H., Babaeizad, V., Mirhosseini, H. A. 2021. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae as the new causal agent of cabbage leaf blight. Journal of Phytopathology 00:1–7.
Bender, C., Alarcon-Chaidez, F., & Gross, D. 1999. Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 63: 266–292.
Bultreys, A., & Kaluzna, M. 2010. Bacterial cankers caused by Pseudomonas syringae on stone fruit species with special emphasis on the pathovars syringae and morsprunorum race 1 and race 2. Journal of Plant Patholology 92: 21−33.
Cetinkaya Yildiz, R., Horuz, S., Karatas, A., & Aysan, Y. 2016. Identification and disease incidence of bacterial canker on stone fruits in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Turkey. Acta Horticulturae 1149: 21-23
Collmer, A. et al. 2000. Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97: 8770–8777.
Fahy, P.C., & Persly, G.J. 1983. Plant Bacterial Disease: A Diagnostic Guide. Academic Press, 393pp, Sydney
Fréchon, D. et al. 1995. Séquences nucléotidiques pour la détection des Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. Brevet 95 (12): 803.
Hirano, S.S., & Upper, C.D. 2000. Bacteria in the leaf ecosystem with emphasis on Pseudomonas syringae-a pathogen, ice nucleus, and epiphyte. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 64: 624–653.
Jakobija, I., & Bankina, B. 2018. Incidence of fruit rot on Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) in Lativa. Research for Rural Development.
Jewell, D. 1998. Fiery flowers of spring. The Garden 123: 90–93.
Jones, A.L. 1971. Bacterial canker of sweet cherry in Michigan. Plant Disease Reports 55: 961-965.
Khezri, M., & Mohammadi, M. 2018. Identification and characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains from various plants and geographical regions. Journal of Plant Protection Research 58(4): 345-361.
Klement Z., Farkas G.L., & Lovrekovich, L. 1964. Hypersensitive reaction induced by phytopathogenic bacteria in the tobacco leaf. Phytopathology 54: 474-477.
Laemmli, V.K. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227: 680−685.
Little, E.L., Bostock, R.M., & Kirkpatrick, B.C. 1998. Genetic characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains from stone fruits in California. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Journal 64: 3818-3823.
Louws, F.J., Rademaker, J.W., & de Bruijn, F.J. 1999. The three Ds of PCR-based genomic analysis of phytobacteria: Diversity, detection, and disease diagnosis. Annual Review of Phytopathology 37: 81-125
Mahmoudi, E., Soleimani, M.J., & Taghavi, M. 2007. Detection of bacterial soft-rot of crown imperial caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using specific PCR primers. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 46(2):168-176.
Najafi Pour, G., & Taghavi, S.M. 2011. Comparison of P. syringae pv. syringae from different hosts based on pathogenicity and BOX-PCR in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 13: 431-442.
Norin, I., & Rumpunen, K. 2003. Pathogens on Japanese Quince (Chaenomeles japonica) Plants. In: Japanese Quince–Potential Fruit Crop for Northern Europe. Final Report FAIR CT97-3894, (ed. K, Rumpunen). 37–58. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
Peix, A., Bahena M-H, Velázquez E. 2018. The current status on the taxonomy of Pseudomonas revisited: an update. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 57:106–116.
Rademarker, J.W. et al. 2000. Comparison of AFLP and rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting with DNA-DNA homology studies: Xanthomonas as a model system. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50: 665-677.
Rahimian, H. 1995. The occurrence of bacterial red streak of sugarcane caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 143(6): 321−324.
Rashidaei, F., Ranjbar, Gh., Rahimian, H. 2012. Detection of Ice nucleation gene in Pseudomonas viridiflava. 3rd Iranian Agricultural Biotechnology Conference. https://civilica.com/doc/204317/: 1-4.
Rohlf, F.J. 1990. NTSYS-pc. Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System, Version 2.02. Exeter Software, New York.
Ruinelli, M., Blom, J., Smits, T.H.M., Pothier, J.F. 2019. Comparative genomics and pathogenicity potential of members of the Pseudomonas syringae species complex on Prunus spp. BMC Genome. 20:172. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5555-y.
Schaad, N.W., Jones, J.B., & Chun, W. 2001. Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Third eds. APS Press. St Paul, Minnesota, 373, USA.
Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A., & Kumar, S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30(12): 2725-2729.
Vasebi, Y., Khakvar, R., Faghihi, M.M., Vinatzer, B.A. 2019. Genomic and pathogenic properties of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from apricot in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 19: 101167.
Versalovic, J., Koeuth, T., & Lupski, R. 1991. Distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in eubacteria and application to fingerprinting of bacterial genomes. Nucleic Acids Research 19: 6823-6831.
Weingart, H., & Völksch, B. 1997. Genetic fingerprinting of Pseudomonas syringae pathovars using ERIC-, REP-, and IS50-PCR. Journal of Phytopathology 145: 339-345.
Young, J.M. (2010). Taxonomy of Pseudomonas syringae. Journal of Plant Pathology 92 (1, Supplement): S5−14.