Vol. 61 No. 2 (2022)
Articles

Activity of essential oils from Syzygium aromaticum and Rosmarinus officinalis against growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus luchuensis from Moroccan grapes

Adil LAAZIZ
Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment, Agri-food and Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, B.P. 1796-Atlas, 30003, Fez
Yousra EL HAMMOUDI
Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment, Agri-food and Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, B.P. 1796-Atlas, 30003, Fez
Souad QJIDAA
Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment, Agri-food and Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, B.P. 1796-Atlas, 30003, Fez
Abdelouahed HAJJAJI
Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment, Agri-food and Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, B.P. 1796-Atlas, 30003, Fez
Hassan HAJJAJ
Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University, B.P. 11201-Zitoune, Meknes
Geert HAESAERT
Department of Crops and Plants, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Campus Schoonmeersen Building C, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000, Ghent
Amina BOUSETA
Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment, Agri-food and Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, B.P. 1796-Atlas, 30003, Fez
Published July 19, 2022
Keywords
  • Antifungal effect,
  • mycotoxins,
  • biological control,
  • clove,
  • rosemary
How to Cite
[1]
A. LAAZIZ, “Activity of essential oils from Syzygium aromaticum and Rosmarinus officinalis against growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus luchuensis from Moroccan grapes”, Phytopathol. Mediterr., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 299-310, Jul. 2022.

Abstract

Essential oils have been used since ancient times in traditional medicine and agri-food science to preserve food, and to combat human diseases. Essential oils (EOs) from clove and rosemary, obtained by hydro-distillation, were analyzed by GC/MS and evaluated for their antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus tubingensis and A. luchuensis and their effect on ochratoxin A (OTA) production by these fungi. The major constituent of clove EO was eugenol (86.4%), and of rosemary EO was eucalyptol (35.9%). Mycelium growth inhibition assays showed that the EOs had dose-depend inhibition effects, which reached 36.6% for rosemary EO, and 100% for clove EO, at EO concentration of 200 μL L-1. These reductions were different for different Aspergillus strains, the essential oil type, and the strain/oil type interaction. Analyses of OTA in the culture medium extracts of Aspergillus strains was carried out using HPLC-FLD, and was confirmed by LC-MS/MS for positive controls of two OTA-producing strains of A. tubingensis. In general, OTA was reduced (from 45 to 100% reduction), except for two strains of A. tubingensis, where OTA production was stimulated.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Abarca M.L., F. Accensi, J. Cano, F.J. Cabanes, 2004. Taxonomy and significance of black aspergilli. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 86, 33-49. DOI: 10.1023/B:ANTO.0000024907.85688.05
Audenaert K., E. Callewaert, M. Hofte, S. De Saeger, G. Haesaert, 2010. Hydrogen peroxide induced by the fungicide prothioconazole triggers deoxynivalenol (DON) production by Fusarium graminearum. BMC Microbiology 10, 1-10. DOI : https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-10-112.
Bassole I.H.N. and H.R. Juliani, 2012. Essential oils in combination and their antimicrobial properties. Molecules 17, 3989-4006. DOI :10.3390/molecules17043989
Battilani P., P. Giorni, T. Bertuzzi, S. Formenti, A. Pietri, 2006. Black aspergilli and ochratoxin A in grapes in Italy. International Journal of Food Microbiology 111, 53-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.03.006
Baydar H., O. Săgdiç, G. Özkan, T. Karadŏgan, 2004. Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from origanum, thymbra and satureja species with commercial importance in turkey. Food Control 15, 169-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(03)00028-8
Bennouna F., S. Ibnsouda Koraichi, H. Barkai, Y. Lekbach, S.El Abed, M. Lachkar. 2018. Essential oil effect on the physicochemical characteristics of different wood species. Asian Journal Scientific Research 11, 568-573. DOI: 10.3923/ajsr.2018.568.573
Bluma R. and M. Etcheverry, 2008. Application of essential oils in maize grain: impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation. Food Microbiology 25, 324-334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2007.10.004
Bomfim D. S., L. P. Nakassugi, J. F. P. Oliveira, C. Y. Kohiyama, S. A. G. Mossini, R. Grespan, S. B. Nerilo, C. A. Mallmann, B. A. A. Filho and M. Machinski, 2015. Antifungal activity and inhibition of fumonisin production by Rosmarinus officinalisL. essential oil in Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg. Food Chemistry 166, 330–336. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.019
Bouddine L., B. Louaste, S. Achahbar, N. Chami, F. Chami and A. Remmal, 2012. Comparative study of the antifungal activity of some essential oils and their major phenolic components against Aspergillus niger using three different methods. African Journal of Biotechenology 11, 14083-14087. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.3293
Boukaew S., P. Prasertsan and S. Sattayasamitsathit, 2017. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and their allelopathic activity from fumigation to protect maize seeds during storage. Industrial Crops and Products 97, 558-566. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.01.005
Bouyahya A, A. Et-Touys, Y. Bakri, T. Ahmed, H. Fellah, J. Abrini, N. Dakka, 2017. Chemical composition of Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Microbial Pathogenesis, Doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.08.015.
Božik M., M. Císarová, D. Tančinová, L. Kouřimská, L. Hleba and P. Klouček, 2017. Selected essential oil vapours inhibit growth of Aspergillus spp. in oats with improved consumer acceptability. Industrial Crops and Products. 98, 146-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.11.044
Bragulat M.R., M.L. Abarca and F.J. Cabanes, 2001. An easy screening method for fungi producing Ochratoxin in Pure Culture. International Journal of Food Microbiology 71, 139-144. DOI: 10.1016/s0168-1605(01)00581-5
Caceres I., R. El Khoury, A. Medina, Y. Lippi, C. Naylies, A. Atoui, A. El Khoury, I. P. Oswald, J.D. Bailly and O. Puel, 2016. Deciphering the Anti-Aflatoxinogenic Properties of Eugenol Using a Large-Scale q-PCR Approach, Toxins 8, 123. doi: 10.3390/toxins8050123
Campos T., S. Barreto, R. Queirós, S. Ricardo-Rodrigues, MR. Félix, M. Laranjo, 2016. Conservação de morangos com utilização de óleos essenciais. AGROTEC 18,90-6
Chiotta M.L., A. Susca, G. Stea, G. Mulè, G. Perrone, A. Logrieco, S.N. Chulze, 2011. Phylogenetic characterization and ochratoxin A-Fumonisin profile of black Aspergillus isolated from grapes in Argentina. International Journal of Food Microbiology 149, 171-176. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.06.002
Copetti M.V., J.L. Pereira, B.T. Iamanaka, J.I. Pitt and M.H. Taniwaki, 2010. Ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A in cocoa during farm processing. International Journal of Food Microbiology 143, 67-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.07.031
Coronel M.B., V. Sanchis, A.J. Ramos and S. Marin, 2010. Ochratoxin A: presence in human plasma and intake estimation. Food science and Technology International 16, 5-18. DOI: 10.1177/1082013209353359
De Medeiros F. C.M., F. N. Gouveia, H. R. Bizzo, R. F. Vieira and C. H.S. Del Menezzi, 2016. Fungicidal activity of essential oils from Brazilian Cerrado species against wood decay fungi. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 114, 87-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.06.003
Edris A.E., 2007. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: A review. Phytother. Res, 21, 308-323. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2072
El Khoury R., A. Atoui, C. Verheecke, R. Maroun, A. El Khoury and F. Mathieu. 2016. Essential oils modulate gene expression and ochratoxin A production in Aspergillus carbonarius. Toxins 8, 242. doi:10.3390/toxins8080242
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance plant oils/clove oil. EFSA Journal 10 (1), 2506. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2506
European Food Safety Authority. 2013. Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 4 (FGE.23Rev4): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30. EFSA Journal, 11(2), 3092. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3092.
Farhat A., H. Benmoussa, R. Bachoual, Z. Nasfi, W. Elfalleh, M. Romdhane, J. Bouajilal, 2017. Efficiency of the optimized microwave assisted extractions on the yield, chemical composition and biological activities of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil, Food and Bioproducts Processinghttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2017.07.011
Frisvad J.C., T.O. Larsen, U. Thrane, M. Meijer, J. Varga, R.A. Samson, K.F. Nielsen, 2011. Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains. PLoS ONE. 6, e23496. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023496

Gamza N. K., F. Ozbey and B. Kabak, 2015. Co-occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in cereal flours commercialized in Turkey. Food Control 54, 275-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.02.014
Gill A.O., P. Delaquis, P. Russo and R.A. Holley, 2002. Evaluation of antilisterial action of cilantro oil on vacuum packed ham. International Journal of Food Microbiology 73, 83-92. DOI: 10.1016/s0168-1605(01)00712-7
Gil-Serna J., M. García-Díaz, C.Vázquez, M.T. González-Jaén, B. Patiño, 2019. Significance of Aspergillus niger aggregate species as contaminants of food products in Spain regarding their occurrence and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Food Microbiology 82, 240-248. DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.02.013
Guerra-Rosas MI., J. Morales-Castro, MA. Cubero-Márquez, L. Salvia-Trujillo, O. Martín-Belloso. 2017. Antimicrobial activity of nano emulsions containing essential oils and high methoxyl pectin during long-term storage. Food Control 77, 131-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.02.008
Hajjaji A, M. El Otmani, D. Bouya, A. Bouseta, F. Mathieu, S. Collin and A. Lebrihi, 2006. Occurrence of mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol) and toxigenic fungi in Moroccan wheat grains: impact of ecological factors on the growth and ochratoxin A production. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 50, 494-499. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.200500196
Helal G., M. Sarhan, A. Abu Shahla and E. Abou El-Khair, 2007. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus l. Essential oil on the growth, morphogenesis and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus mL2-strain. Journal of Basic Microbiology 47, 5-15. DOI: 10.1002/jobm.200610137
IARC. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1993. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans. IARC, Lyon, France 56, 489-521.
IARC. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2009. Agents Reviewed by the IARC Monographs vols. 1-100a (by cas numbers) P:10.
Jahanshiri Z., M. Shams-Ghahfarokhi, A. Allameh and M. Razzaghi-Abyaneh., 2015. Inhibitory effect of Eugenol on aflatoxin B1 production in Aspergillus parasiticus by downregulating the expression of major genes in the toxin biosynthetic pathway, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology31, 1071-1078. DOI 10.1007/s11274-015-1857-7
Kokkini S., E. Handilou and R. Karouscou, 2004. Clinal variation of Mentha pulegium essential oils along the climatic gradient of Greece. Journal of Essential Oil Research 16, 588-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2004.9698805
Laaziz A., S. Qjidaa, Y. El Hammoudi, A. Hajjaji and A. Bouseta. 2017. Chemical control of fungal growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus isolated from Moroccan grapes. South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology 7, 2, 84-91.
Lappa I. K., E. Simini, G. E. Nychas and E. Z. Panagou, 2017. In vitro evaluation of essential oils against Aspergillus carbonarius isolates and their effects on Ochratoxin A related gene expression in synthetic grape medium. Food Control 73, 71-80.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.08.016
Lasram S., H. Zemni, Z. Hamdi, S. Chenenaoui, H. Houissa, M. Saidani Tounsi, A. Ghorbel. 2019. Antifungal and antiaflatoxinogenic activities of Carum carvi L., Coriandrum sativum L. seed essential oils and their major terpene component against Aspergillus flavus. Industrial Crops & Products 134, 11-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.03.037
Leong S.L.L., A.D. Hocking, P. Varelis, G. Giannikopoulos and Scott ES, 2006. Fate of ochratoxin A during vinification of Semillon and shiraz grapes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, 6460-6464. DOI: 10.1021/jf061669d
Mateo E. M., J. V. Gómez, I. Domínguez, J. V. Gimeno-Adelantado, R. Mateo-Castro, R. Gavara and M. Jiménez,2017. Impact of bioactive packaging systems based on EVOH films and essential oils in the control of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin production in maize. International Journal of Food Microbiology 254, 36-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2017.05.007
Mateo E.M., F.M. Valle-Algarra, M. Jiménez and N. Magan, 2013. Impact of three sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth of Fusarium langsethiae and on T-2 and HT-2 toxin production in oat grain under different ecological conditions. Food Control 34, 521-529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.05.011
Matusinsky P., M. Zouhar, R. Pavela and P. Novy, 2015. Antifungal effect of five essential oils against important pathogenic fungi of cereals. Industrial Crops and Products 67, 208-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.01.022
Medina, A., R. Mateo, L. Lopez-Ocana, F.M. Valle-Algarra, M. Jimenez, 2005. Study of Spanish grape mycobiota and ochratoxin A production by isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and other members of Aspergillus section Nigri. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, 4696-4702. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.71.8.4696-4702.2005
Morcia C., M. Malnati and V. Terzi. 2012. In vitro antifungal activity of terpinen-4-ol, eugenol, carvone, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) and thymol against mycotoxigenic plant pathogens. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 29, 3, 415-422.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2011.643458
Mourey A. and N. Canillac, 2002. Anti-Listeria monocytogenes activity of essential oils components of conifers. Food Control 13, 289-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(02)00026-9
Munhuweyi K., Caleb OJ, CL. Lennox, AJ. van Reenen, UL. Opara. 2017. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of chitosan-essential oils against pomegranate fruit pathogens. Postharvest Biology and Technology 129, 9-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2017.03.002
Murphy P.A., S. Hendrich, C. Landgren and C.M. Bryant, 2006. Food mycotoxins: an update. Journal of Food Science 71, 51-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00052.x
Nazzaro F, F. Fratianni, R. Coppola and V. De Feo., 2017. Essential oils and antifungal activity, Pharmaceuticals 10, 86; doi:10.3390/ph10040086
Nikkhah M, and M. Hashemi. 2020. Boosting antifungal effect of essential oils using combination approach as an efficient strategy to control postharvest spoilage and preserving the jujube fruit quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology 160, 111159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2020.111159
Oliveira R.C., M. Carvajal-Moreno, P. Mercado-Ruaro, F. Rojo-Callejas, B. Corre. 2020. Essential oils trigger an antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic effect on Aspergillus flavus via the induction of apoptosis-like cell death and gene regulation. Food Control 110, 107038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.107038
Pantelides I.S., E. Aristeidou, M. Lazari, M.D. Tsolakidou, D. Tsaltas, M. Christofidou, D. Kafouris, E. Christou, N. Ioannou, 2017. Biodiversity and ochratoxin A profile of Aspergillus section Nigri populations isolated from wine grapes in Cyprus vineyards. Food Microbiology 67, 106-115. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2017.06.010
Passone M. A., N. S. Girardi and M. Etcheverry, 2012. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels. International Journal of Food Microbiology 159, 198-206. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.08.019
Pawar V. and V. Thaker, 2006. In vitro efficacy of 75 essential oils against Aspergillus niger. Mycoses 49, 316-323. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2006.01241.x
Perrone, G., G. Mule, A. Susca, P. Battilani, A. Pietri, A. Logrieco, 2006. Ochratoxin A production and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger strains isolated from grapes in Italy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 680-685. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.72.1.680-685.2006
Prakash B., A.Kedia, P.K. Mishra and N.K. Dubey, 2015. Plant essential oils as food preservatives to control moulds, mycotoxin contamination and oxidative deterioration of agri-food commodities-potentials and challenges. Food Control 47, 381-391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.07.023
Qjidaa S., A. Selouane, S. Zouhair, D.Bouya, C.Decock and A. Bouseta, 2014. In vitro effect of pyrimethanil on the fungal growth of ochratoxigenic and no-ochratoxigenic species of Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus foetidus isolated from Moroccan grapes. South Asian Journal of experimental Biology 4, 76-84.
Rasooli I., M. H. Fakoor, D. Yadegarinia, L. Gachkar, A. Allameh and M. Bagher Rezaei, 2008. Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils. International Journal of Food Microbiology 122, 135-139. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.11.048
Rasooli, I. and P. Owlia, 2005. Chemoprevention by thyme oils of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Phytochemistry 66, 2851-2856. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.09.029
Remmal A., T. Bouchikhi, K. Rhayour, M. Ettayebi and A. Tantaoui-Elaraki, 1993.Improved Method for the Determination of Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils in Agar Medium. Journal of Essential Oil Research 5, 179-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1993.9698197
Risaliti L., A. Kehagia, E. Daoultzi, D. Lazari, M.C. Bergonzi, S. Vergkizi Nikolakaki, D. Hadjipavlou-Litina and A.R. Bilia, 2019. Liposomes loaded with Salvia triloba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils: In vitro assessment of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2019.03.034
Santamarina M. P., J. Rosello, S. Gimenez and M. A. Blazquez, 2016. Commercial Laurusnobilis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr. & Perry essential oils against post-harvest Phytopathogenic fungi on rice. LWT - Food Science and Technology 65, 325-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.08.040
Selouane A., S. Zouhair, D. Bouya, A. Lebrihi, and A.Bouseta. 2009. Natural occurrence of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and ochratoxin a in Moroccan grapes. World Applied Sciences Journal 7, 297-305.
Sharma A., S. Rajendran, A. Srivastava, S. Sharma and B. Kundu, 2017. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 123, 308-313. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2016.09.011
Sharma N. and A. Tripathi, 2008. Effects of Citrussinensis (L.) Osbeck epicarp essential oil on growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger (L.) Van Tieghem. Microbiological Research 163, 337-344. DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2006.06.009
Sivakumar D. and S. Bautista-Baños. 2014. A review on the use of essential oils for postharvest decay control and maintenance of fruit quality during storage. Crop Protection 64, 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.05.012
Storari, M., Bigler, L., Gessler, C., Broggini, G.A.L., 2012. Assessment of the ochratoxin A production ability of Aspergillus tubingensis. Food Addit Contam Part A. 29, 1450-1454. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2012.698656
Takayama C., F. Meira de-Faria, A.C. Alves de Almeida, R.J. Dunder, L. P. Manzo, E.A.R. Socca, L.M. Batista, M.J. Salvador, A.R.M. Souza-Brito, A. Luiz-Ferreira, 2016. Chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil and antioxidant action against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol in the rat. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6, 677-681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.027
Talebi F., A. Misaghi, A. Khanjari, A. Kamkar, H. Gandomi, M. Rezaeigolestani. 2018. Incorporation of spice essential oils into poly-lactic acid film matrix with the aim of extending microbiological and sensorial shelf life of ground beef. LWT - Food Science and Technology. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2018.05.067.
Tavakol Noorabadi M., V. Babaeizad, R. Zare, B. Asgari, M. Haidukowski, F. Epifani, G. Stea, A. Moretti, A.F. Logrieco, A. Susca, 2020. Isolation, Molecular Identification, and Mycotoxin Production of Aspergillus Species Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Sugarcane in the South of Iran. Toxins 12, 122. DOI: 10.3390/toxins12020122
Wan Ainiza W.M., S. Jinap, and M. Sanny, 2015. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in single and mixed spices. Food Control 50, 913-918. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.027
Zinedine A., J.M. Soriano, C. Juan, B. Mojemmi, J.C. Moltó, A. Bouclouze, Y. Cherrah, L. Idrissi, R. El Aouad and J. Mañes. 2007. Incidence of ochratoxin A in rice and dried fruits from Rabat and Salé area, Morocco. Food Additives and Contaminants 24, 285-291.DOI:10.1080/02652030600967230
Zouhair S., S. Qjidaa, A. Selouane, D. Bouya, C. Decock and A. Bouseta.2014. Effect of five fungicides on growth and ochratoxin A production by two Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger isolated from Moroccan grapes. South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology 4, 118-126.