Activity of bacterial seed endophytes of landrace durum wheat for control of Fusarium foot rot
- biological control,
- Fusarium culmorum,
- Pantoea spp.,
- Paenibacillus spp.
Copyright (c) 2022 Claudia Quartana, Teresa Faddetta, Letizia Anello, Maria Di Bernardo, Rosa Petralia, Vito Campanella
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Five bacterial endophytic isolates obtained from durum wheat seeds (landrace “Timilia reste nere”) and identified as belonging to Pantoea (isolates A1, F7, F15 and G1) and Paenibacillus (isolate B) genera on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences, were assayed in vitro and in vivo for their ability to inhibit Fusarium culmorum growth and the disease (Fusarium foot rot) it causes in durum wheat. All isolates significantly reduced in vitro growth of F. culmorum in comparison with the control. After 120 hours of incubation, isolates B and G1 showed the greatest mycelial growth inhibition, i.e., respectively, 76 and 74%. When durum wheat “Simeto” seeds were treated with bacterial isolates singly or in combinations and then inoculated with F. culmorum, all treatments with endophytes showed increased, but not statistically significant, seed germination. Except for isolate A1, all bacterial isolates stimulated vegetative parameters of durum wheat seedlings. Mixture of isolates F7 + F15 was the most effective in improving shoot height (+94%), root length (+47%) and vigour index (+81%). Mixture of isolates A1 + B reduced Fusarium foot rot incidence (-21%) and severity (-30%), and isolate A1 reduced incidence (-15%) and severity (-16%) of the disease. These results indicate potential of bacterial seed endophytes, identified in this study, for control of Fusarium foot rot and suggest that bacterial seed endophytes may provide a new biocontrol agent for an environmentally sustainable durum wheat disease management programme.