Vol. 61 No. 2 (2022)

Occurrence of cherry viruses in South Tyrol (Italy) by comparing growth periods in two consecutive years

Laimburg Research Centre, Laimburg 6 - Pfatten (Vadena), 39040 Auer (Ora), BZ
Magdalena NIEDRIST
Laimburg Research Centre, Laimburg 6 - Pfatten (Vadena), 39040 Auer (Ora), BZ
Sabine OETTL
Laimburg Research Centre, Laimburg 6 - Pfatten (Vadena), 39040 Auer (Ora), BZ
Published September 15, 2022
  • Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV),
  • Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV),
  • Prune dwarf virus (PDV),
  • sweet cherry,
  • Prunus avium
How to Cite
E. DELTEDESCO, M. NIEDRIST, and S. OETTL, “Occurrence of cherry viruses in South Tyrol (Italy) by comparing growth periods in two consecutive years”, Phytopathol. Mediterr., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 395-404, Sep. 2022.


Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are important as fruit crops, and can be affected by numerous viruses. An investigation on the occurrence of the three most common viruses of sweet cherry was carried out in commercially managed orchards in South Tyrol (Italy). The incidence of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and prune dwarf virus (PDV) was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in spring 2018 and 2020, and during the summer and autumn of 2020. All three viruses were detected in the surveyed orchards. Comparative analyses showed that detection was more effective with RT-PCR than with ELISA, especially for detecting PNRSV and PDV. Mixed infections were detected in all the surveyed orchards. The results also showed clear differences between and during host growth periods, likely due to a variable virus concentration in the host trees.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Adams, M., Antoniw, J., Bar-Joseph, M., Brunt, A., Candresse, T., Foster, G., Martelli, G., Milne, R., Fauquet, C., 2004. Virology Division News: The new plant virus family Flexiviridae and assessment of molecular criteria for species demarcation. Archives of virology 149, 1045-1060.
Aparicio, F., Myrta, A., Di Terlizzi, B., Pallás, V., 1999. Molecular variability among isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus from different Prunus spp. Phytopathology 89, 991-999.
Babini, A.R., D’Anniballe, A., Fini, P., Grillini, P., 2014. Le piante di ciliegio minacciate dai virus. Servizio Fitosanitario, Regione Emilia-Romagna, Agricoltura.
Barba, M., De Sanctis, F., Cupidi, A., 1985. Distribuzione dei virus del Mandorlo nell'Italia centrale/Distribution of Almond viruses in Central Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24, 267-269.
Barba, M., Ilardi, V., Pasquini, G., 2015. Chapter Three - Control of Pome and Stone Fruit Virus Diseases, in: Loebenstein, G., Katis, N.I. (Eds.), Advances in Virus Research. Academic Press, pp. 47-83.
Bariana, H., Shannon, A., Chu, P., Waterhouse, P.M., 1994. Detection of five seedborne legume viruses in one sensitive multiplex polymerase chain reaction test. Phytopathology 84, 1201-1205.
Barone, M., Alioto, D., Marais, A., Candresse, T., Ragozzino, A., 2006. First report and high prevalence in noncherry host of Cherry virus A in Italy. Plant disease 90, 1459-1459.
Capote, N., Bertolini, E., Olmos, A., Vidal, E., Martínez, M.C., Cambra, M., 2009. Direct sample preparation methods for the detection of Plum pox virus by real-time RT-PCR. International Microbiology 12, 1.
Catalano, L., 2013. Focus sulla cerasicoltura italiana, Karpòs Magazine.
Cirilli, M., Geuna, F., Babini, A.R., Bozhkova, V., Catalano, L., Cavagna, B., Dallot, S., Decroocq, V., Dondini, L., Foschi, S., 2016. Fighting Sharka in peach: current limitations and future perspectives. Frontiers in plant science 7, 1290.
EPPO, 2015. PM 7/125 (1) ELISA tests for viruses. EPPO Bulletin 45, 445-449.
FAO, 2020. Data, Crops.
Fiore, N., Fajardo, T.V.M., Prodan, S., Herranz, M.C., Aparicio, F., Montealegre, J., Elena, S.F., Pallás, V., Sánchez-Navarro, J., 2008. Genetic diversity of the movement and coat protein genes of South American isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus. Archives of Virology 153, 909-919.
Gamper, M., 2010. Kirschenanbau in Südtirol, obstbau*weinbau.
Gospodaryk, A., Moročko-Bičevska, I., Pūpola, N., Kāle, A., 2013. Occurrence of stone fruit viruses in plum orchards in Latvia, Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. Sciendo, pp. 116-123.
Hadidi, A., Barba, M., Candresse, T., Jelkmann, W., 2011. Virus and virus-like diseases of pome and stone fruits. Am Phytopath Society.
Honjo, M.N., Emura, N., Kawagoe, T., Sugisaka, J., Kamitani, M., Nagano, A.J., Kudoh, H., 2020. Seasonality of interactions between a plant virus and its host during persistent infection in a natural environment. The ISME journal 14, 506-518.
Hu, D., Wang, L., Jiang, X., Wang, N., Gu, L., 2014. The RT-PCR identification and sequence analysis of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus from apple cultivars in Jiaodong Peninsula, China. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 28, 238-241.
Katsiani, A.T., Maliogka, V.I., Candresse, T., Katis, N.I., 2014. Host-range studies, genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of ACLSV isolates from ornamental, wild and cultivated Rosaceous species. Plant Pathology 63, 63-71.
Kozieł, E., Otulak-Kozieł, K., Bujarski, J.J., 2020. Modifications in Tissue and Cell Ultrastructure as Elements of Immunity-Like Reaction in Chenopodium quinoa against Prune Dwarf Virus (PDV). Cells 9, 148.
Kummert, J., Vendrame, M., Lepoivre, P., Steyer, S., 2001. Development of routine RT-PCR ELOSA tests for fruit tree certification. Acta Horticulturae.
Liu, P., Li, Z., Song, S., Wu, Y., 2014. Molecular variability of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in Shaanxi, China. Phytoparasitica 42, 445-454.
Mandic, B., Matić, S., Rwahnih, M.A., Jelkmann, W., Myrta, A., 2007. Viruses of sweet and sour cherry in Serbia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 103-108.
Martelli, G., Candresse, T., Namba, S., 1994. Trichovirus, a new genus of plant viruses. Archives of virology 134, 451-455.
Matic, S., Myrta, A., Minafra, A., 2007. First report of little cherry virus 1 in cherry, plum, almond and peach in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 89.
Mekuria, G., Ramesh, S.A., Alberts, E., Bertozzi, T., Wirthensohn, M., Collins, G., Sedgley, M., 2003. Comparison of ELISA and RT-PCR for the detection of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus and prune dwarf virus in almond (Prunus dulcis). Journal of Virological Methods 114, 65-69.
Menzel, W., Zahn, V., Maiss, E., 2003. Multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA compared with bioassay for the detection of four apple viruses. Journal of Virological Methods 110, 153-157.
Myrta, A., Di Terlizzi, B., Savino, V., Martelli, G., 2003. Virus diseases affecting the Mediterranean stone fruit industry: a decade of surveys. Virus and virus-like diseases of stone fruits, with particular reference to the Mediterranean region. Options Méditerranéennes: Série B. Etudes et Recherches 45, 15-23.
Myrta, A., Savino, V., 2005. Virus and virus-like diseases of cherry in the Mediterranean region, V International Cherry Symposium 795, pp. 891-896.
Noorani, M.S., Awasthi, P., Sharma, M.P., Ram, R., Zaidi, A.A., Hallan, V., 2013. Simultaneous detection and identification of four cherry viruses by two step multiplex RT-PCR with an internal control of plant nad5 mRNA. Journal of Virological Methods 193, 103-107.
Oliver, J.E., Freer, J., Andersen, R.L., Cox, K.D., Robinson, T.L., Fuchs, M., 2009. Genetic Diversity of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Isolates Within a Cherry Orchard in New York. Plant Disease 93, 599-606.
Osman, F., Al Rwahnih, M., Rowhani, A., 2016. Real-time RT-qPCR detection of cherry rasp leaf virus, cherry green ring mottle virus, cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus, cherry virus a and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in stone fruits. Journal of plant pathology 99, 279-285.
Öztürk, Y., Çevik, B., 2015. Genetic Diversity in the Coat Protein Genes of Prune dwarf virus Isolates from Sweet Cherry Growing in Turkey. Plant Pathol J 31, 41-49.
Paduch-Cichal, E., Sala-Rejczak, K., Lewko, J., 2007. The reaction of Prunus avium clone F12/1 plants inoculated with PNRSV isolates from different species of Prunus and rose plants. Phytopathol. Pol 46, 13-23.
Pirazzoli, C., Palmieri, A., 2019. Aspetti produttivi e di mercato dell’attuale cerasicoltura, rivista frutticoltura e ortofloricoltura.
Polák, J., Svoboda, J., 2006. The reliability of detection and the distribution of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in pears in the Czech Republic. Hort Sci 33, 7-10.
Predajňa, L., Sihelská, N., Benediková, D., Šoltys, K., Candresse, T., Glasa, M., 2017. Molecular characterization of Prune dwarf virus cherry isolates from Slovakia shows their substantial variability and reveals recombination events in PDV RNA3. European journal of plant pathology 147, 877-885.
Rana, T., Chandel, V., Hallan, V., Zaidi, A.A., 2011. Expression of recombinant Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus coat protein in heterologous system: production and use in immunodiagnosis. Journal of plant biochemistry and biotechnology 20, 138-141.
Rizzo, D., Materazzi, A., Stefani, L., Panattoni, A., Pierro, R., De Bellis, L., Luvisi, A., 2017. The occurrence of viruses and viroids in ornamental citrus mother plants in Tuscany (Central Italy). Crop Protection 102, 137-140.
Rubio, M., Martínez‐Gómez, P., Marais, A., Sánchez‐Navarro, J., Pallás, V., Candresse, T., 2017. Recent advances and prospects in Prunus virology. Annals of Applied Biology 171, 125-138.
Sanchez-Navarro, J., Aparicio, F., Herranz, M., Minafra, A., Myrta, A., Pallas, V., 2005. Simultaneous detection and identification of eight stone fruit viruses by one-step RT-PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology 111, 77-84.
Sánchez-Navarro, J., Aparicio, F., Rowhani, A., Pallás, V., 1998. Comparative analysis of ELISA, nonradioactive molecular hybridization and PCR for the detection of prunus necrotic ringspot virus in herbaceous and Prunus hosts. Plant Pathology 47, 780-786.
Sánchez, R.P., Corts, R.M., Benavides, P.G., Sánchez, M.Á.G., 2015. Main viruses in sweet cherry plantations of Central-Western Spain. Scientia Agricola 72, 83-86.
Savino, V., Digiaro, M., Martelli, G., Di Terlizzi, B., 1991. Plum pox virus outbreaks in Apulia and Basilicata (southern Italy), XV International Symposium on Fruit Tree Diseases 309, pp. 125-128.
Song, G.q., Sink, K.C., Walworth, A.E., Cook, M.A., Allison, R.F., Lang, G.A., 2013. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to P runus necrotic ring spot virus through RNA i‐mediated silencing. Plant biotechnology journal 11, 702-708.
Wang, J., Zhai, Y., Zhu, D., Liu, W., Pappu, H.R., Liu, Q., 2018. Whole-Genome Characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China. Genome Announcements 6, e00060-00018.
Watpade, S., Raigond, B., Pramanick, K.K., Sharma, N., Handa, A., Sharma, U., 2013. Simultaneous detection of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus and Apple mosaic virus in crab apples and apple rootstocks by duplex RT-PCR. Scientia Horticulturae 164, 88-93.
Wei, T., Lu, G., Clover, G., 2008. Novel approaches to mitigate primer interaction and eliminate inhibitors in multiplex PCR, demonstrated using an assay for detection of three strawberry viruses. Journal of Virological Methods 151, 132-139.
Werth, K., 2006. Anbau- und Vermarktungsrechte für Kanzi gesichert, Obstbau*Weinbau.
Yardimci, B.C.N., Culal-Klllc, H., 2011. Detection of viruses infecting stone fruits in Western Mediterranean region of Turkey. Plant Pathol J 27, 44-52.
Yu, Y., Zhao, Z., Jiang, D., Wu, Z., Li, S., 2013. A one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of four viruses that infect peach. Letters in Applied Microbiology 57, 350-355.
Zago, M., 2003. Erfahrungen mit Süßkirschen in Südtirol, obstbau*weinbau.
Zago, M., Ropelato, E., 2009. Grenzen und Risiken beim Anbau von Süßkirschen in Höhenlagen, obstbau*weinbau.