Temperature and incubation period affect Septoria pistaciarum conidium germination: disease forecasting and validation
- Generic model,
Copyright (c) 2021 Thomas THOMIDIS, Konstantinos MICHOS, Fotis CHATZIPAPADOPOULOS, Amalia TAMPAKI
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Septoria leaf spot is an important disease of pistachio trees in Greece. This study aimed to determine effects of temperature and the incubation period on germination of conidia of Septoria pistaciarum, and to evaluate a generic model to forecast pistachio leaf spot under the field conditions of Aegina Island, Greece. The optimum temperature for conidium germination was 23°C, and germination was inhibited at 35 and 4°C. At constant temperature of 23°C, conidia commenced germination after 9 h. The predictive model indexed disease risk close to 100 at 10 May at two locations (Rachi Moschona and Vigla) in 2017, and first leaf spot symptoms were observed on 17 May. Moderate to high disease severity (>25% leaves infected) were observed in unsprayed trees at the end of May. In 2018, the model indexed risk close to 100 on 9 May at Rachi Moschona, and first symptoms were observed on 18 May. Moderate to high disease severity (>25% leaves infected) were observed in unsprayed trees on 25th of May. This study has shown that the forecasting model can be used in Aegina Island, Greece, to predict the severity of Septoria leaf spot of pistachio.