The role of the applied load in bone homeostasis and its implications in implant dentistry: a mini-review
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The aim of this work is to carry out a review about the role of applied load on bone development and homeostasis and its implications in dental implantology. The history of theoretical bone physiology has been evaluated in detail. The modern theory of bone physiology is consistent with the integration among regional acceleratory phenomenon, Utah paradigm, and mechanostat hypothesis: bone modelling and remodelling respond to pleiotropic stimuli. To date, several histologic, in silico and in vitro studies in implant dentistry corroborate the theories about bone physiology. However, each evaluation method has pros and cons, providing analytical data that can only be used to esteem the in vivo behaviour of the bone-implant system. There is the need of further research with highly validated methods and improved measurement devices, to better integrate data form different research types. This would progressively lead to more structured comprehension of the in vivo performance of dental implants and their surrounding bone, and hopefully to a clear definition of the impact of loading on implant failure.