Immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of bone remodelling pattern in alveolar socket
- Bone turnover,
- post-extraction site,
- bone substitute
How to Cite
Following tooth extraction, the alveolar bone remodelling process starts. Bundle bone and buccal wall resorption occur early with horizontal and vertical bone crest reduction . The use of bone substitutes has been proposed to limit bone resorption, thus allowing further dental rehabilitation . Aim of this project was to characterize by a molecular and morphological approach the physiological remodelling of post-extractive alveolar socket and to compare it with the bone remodelling occurring after alveolar bone reconstruction with an alloplastic material. Thirty-six patients needing tooth extraction were enrolled and equally divided into three groups: A) baseline, B) spontaneous healing, C) biomaterial. In each group, 2 biopsies per site were harvested during tooth extraction (group A) or 4-6 months after tooth extraction (groups B and C). In group B, patients recovered spontaneously, while in group C the alveolar socket was filled with a magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite. One biopsy was processed for immunohistochemistry to localise TNF-α, IL-6, RANK, RANKL and OPG. The second biopsy underwent a Real-Time PCR analysis for the same biomarkers in order to evaluate gene expression. In groups B and C, a third biopsy was retrieved and processed for ground section aiming to assess tissue composition. Differences between the three groups were investigated using Kruskal Wallis test (p<0,05) followed by post-hoc tests. All samples showed a normal structure without inflammatory infiltrate. At immunohistochemical analysis, all biomarkers except for OPG had increased. Significant differences were found between the three groups for TNF-α (p< 0,05), IL-6 (p<0,001), RANK (p< 0,01) and RANKL (p<0,001), between groups A and C for IL-6 (p≤ 0,001), RANK (p≤ 0,01), RANKL (p≤ 0,001) and between B and C for IL-6 (p≤ 0,01). Gene expression did not show statistical differences. Crumbles of biomaterial surrounded by regenerated bone were evident. A higher percentage of mineral component was obtained in group B than in C. The biomarkers selected in the current study were involved in the alveolar remodelling and the biomaterial used for socket preservation did not influence the process.