Vol. 119 No. 3 (2014)
Original Article

Facial soft-tissue volumes in adult Northern Sudanese individuals with Down syndrome

Published 2015-02-17


  • anthropometry,
  • Down syndrome,
  • face,
  • soft-tissues

How to Cite

Sforza, C., Dolci, C., Rosati, R., de Menezes, M., Pisoni, L., Ferrario, V., & Elamin, F. (2015). Facial soft-tissue volumes in adult Northern Sudanese individuals with Down syndrome. Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology, 119(3), 201–213. Retrieved from https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/ijae/article/view/1245


Objective: To investigate dimensions and ratios of soft-tissue facial volumes of adult Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome by using computerized anthropometric measurements. Design, Setting, and Patients: The 3D coordinates of soft-tissue facial landmarks were obtained by a computerized digitizer in 26 Northern Sudanese adult subjects with Down syndrome (18 men, 8 women, aged 17-34 years), and in 99 healthy Northern Sudanese controls (48 women, 51 men) of the same age range. From the landmarks, several facial volumes and volume ratios were calculated. Data were compared to those collected in healthy individuals by computing z-scores. Results: In subjects with Down syndrome, facial volumes were significantly smaller than in control subjects (Student’s t, p < 0.05). The patterns of deviation from the norm were similar in men and women. When compared to controls, subjects with Down syndrome had no differences in nose volume as a fraction of total facial volume and a larger total lip volume as a fraction of total facial volume; within the facial middle third, they had relatively larger upper lip volumes and relatively smaller nose volumes. Conclusions: The facial soft-tissue structures of subjects with Down syndrome differed from those of normal controls of the same age, sex and ethnic group: a reduced facial size was coupled with specific variations in the nasal and labial regions.