Da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man, Golden Ratio and Anthropometrics
Copyright (c) 2021 Jihad A. M. Alzyoud, Khaldun M. Jacoub, Samya A. Omoush, Abd Al-Rahman S. Al-Shudiefat
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Objectives: Divine golden ratio (Phi = 1.618) observed in several human body parts such as, heart, dentition and upper limb tends to present homeostasis in anatomy and physiology. This cross sectional survey study investigates the relationship of golden ratio with BMI, GPA, gender and blood serotypes in Jordan.
Methods: Demographic features including GPA, body weight, lengths of some body parts and ABO/Rh blood groups were measured for 380 undergraduate students of matched age (19.14±0.76) and matched sex ratio. Navel-Foot/Height, Forearm-Hand/Armpit-hand and BMI were calculated. Golden ratio fitness was calculated based on phi and standard deviation of collected data.
Results showed significant gender differences in the means for all body lengths measured, GPA, BMI, and calculated ratios. Golden ratio fitted bodies students were 40.5% (Females > males). The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15% (females < males), while 80% (females > males) have normal weight. Among the overweight and obese students 77.2% (44/57, females less than males) lies outside the golden ratio. The overall prevalence of GPA grades above good were 51.3% (females > males) and among them 47.7% (93/195, females > males) fit golden ratio while 67.2% of the good or below GPA grades (121/180, females < males) did not fit golden ratio. No significant difference between ABO-Rh system related to gender or golden ratio fitness. Statistically, a significant association was found between golden ratio and the three parameters BMI, GPA and gender.
Conclusions: Students who are golden ratio fitted bodies were more likely to have better BMI and GPA especially females.