Lineages in <em>Nectriaceae</em>: re-evaluating the generic status of <em>Ilyonectria</em> and allied genera
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Genera with cylindrocarpon-like asexual morphs are important pathogens of various herbaceous and woody plant hosts globally. Recent multi-gene studies of this generic complex indicated that the genus Ilyonectria is paraphyletic. The present study was therefore initiated to re-evaluate the generic status of Ilyonectria and at the same time address some taxonomic irregularities in the genera Cylindrodendrum and Neonectria. Using multi-gene DNA data and morphological comparisons, the genus Dactylonectria is introduced with 10 new combinations, several of which were previously treated in Ilyonectria. Two new species, D. hordeicola and D. pinicola, are also described. Furthermore, one new combination is provided in the genus Cylindrodendrum, and three new combinations in the genus Neonectria, for species previously treated in the genera Acremonium, Cylindrocarpon, Nectria and Neonectria. The aquatic genus Heliscus is reduced to synonymy under Neonectria.