Phytopathologia Mediterranea <p><em>Phytopathologia Mediterranea</em> is an international open-access, peer-reviewed journal edited by the <a title="Mediterranean phytopathological union" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mediterranean Phytopathological Union</a>. The journal deals with the main areas of plant pathology as epidemiology, control, biochemical and physiological aspects, application of molecular biology techniques, applied to fungi, bacteria, phytoplasmas, viruses, viroids, nematodes, etc. Special attention is given to phytopathological problems of the Mediterranean area. The journal includes 3 issues per year in which a review paper, original research papers, short notes and new disease reports are published. It also includes Book reviews of interest for Mediterranean phytopathologists. Papers are published in English. Phytopathologia Mediterranea is covered by CAB, BIOSIS, AGRIS, Chemical Abstracts, CSA, JSTORE.</p> <p><em>Phytopathologia Mediterranea</em> is printed with the financial support of the Ministero per i Beni Culturali, Roma, Italy.</p> Firenze University Press en-US Phytopathologia Mediterranea 0031-9465 <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in PHYTO</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> Biological and molecular characterization of seven Diaporthe species associated with kiwifruit shoot blight and leaf spot in China <p><em>Diaporthe </em>species are significant pathogens, saprobes, and endophytes, with comprehensive host association and geographic distribution. These fungi cause severe dieback, cankers, leaf spots, blights, and stem-end rot of fruits on different plant hosts. This study, explored the occurrence, diversity and pathogenicity of <em>Diaporthe</em> spp. associated with <em>Actinidia chinensis</em> and <em>A</em>.<em> deliciosa</em> in the main kiwifruit production areas of China. <em>Diaporthe</em> isolates (284) derived from 106 diseased leaf and branch samples were examined. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses and morphology of 43 representative isolates revealed that seven <em>Diaporthe</em> species were obtained, including <em>D. alangii</em>,<em> D. compactum</em>, <em>D. eres</em>, <em>D. hongkongensis</em>, <em>D. sojae</em>, <em>D. tectonae</em>, and <em>D. unshiuensis</em>. Pathogenicity tests were performed on kiwifruit fruits, leaves and branches. Koch’s postulates confirmed all species were pathogenic. <em>D. alangii</em> and <em>D. tectonae</em> were the most aggressive species, followed by <em>D. eres</em>, <em>D. sojae</em>, <em>D. hongkongensis</em>, <em>D. unshiuensis</em>, and <em>D. compactum</em>. Host range evaluation showed that the seven <em>Diaporthe</em> species could also infect apricot, apple, peach, pear, and plum.&nbsp; This is the first report of <em>D. alangii</em>, <em>D. compactum</em>, <em>D. sojae</em>, <em>D. tectonae</em>, and<em> D. unshiuensis</em> infecting kiwifruit in China, increasing understanding of the <em>Diaporthe</em> complex causing diseases of kiwifruit plants, to assist effective disease management.</p> Yamin DU Xianhong WANG Yashuang GUO Feng XIAO Yuhong PENG Ni HONG Guoping WANG Copyright (c) 2021 Yamin DU, Xianhong WANG, Yashuang GUO, Feng XIAO, Yuhong PENG, Ni HONG, Guoping WANG 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 177 198 10.36253/phyto-12013 Distribution and identification of luteovirids affecting chickpea in Sudan <p>In Sudan yellowing viruses are key production constraints in pulse crops. Field surveys were carried out to identify luteovirids affecting chickpea crops in the major production regions (Gezira Scheme and River Nile State). A total of 415 chickpea plant samples with yellowing and stunting symptoms were collected during the 2013, 2015 and 2018 growing seasons. Serological results (Tissue-blot immunoassays) showed that <em>Luteoviridae</em> and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV, genus <em>Mastrevirus</em>, family <em>Geminiviridae</em>) were the most common viruses, with rare infections with Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, genus <em>Nanovirus</em>, family <em>Nanoviridae</em>). Some samples reacted only with a broad-spectrum luteovirid monoclonal antibody (5G4-MAb), and others showed cross reactions between the specific monoclonal antibodies, suggesting the occurrence of new luteovirid variants. Serological results were confirmed by amplification with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing of the partial coat protein gene. Molecular analyses provided a basic, sufficient and reliable characterization for four viruses affecting chickpea that belong to <em>Polerovirus</em> (family <em>Luteoviridae</em>). These were Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV), Pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) and Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), that shared high similarity with the type sequences. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed high similarity to luteovirid species. This study has established reliable, rapid and sensitive molecular tools for the detection of luteovirid species.</p> Abdulrahman MOUKAHEL Safaa G. KUMARI Abdelmagid Adlan HAMED Murray SHARMAN Seid AHMED Copyright (c) 2021 Abdulrahman MOUKAHEL, Safaa G. KUMARI, Abdelmagid Adlan HAMED, Murray SHARMAN, Seid AHMED 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 199 214 10.36253/phyto-12135 Bacillus-based products for management of kiwifruit bacterial canker <p><em>Pseudomonas syringae</em> pv. <em>actinidiae</em> is an important pathogen of kiwifruit (<em>Actinidia deliciosa</em>), and bacterial canker of this host is managed by monitoring and chemical control strategies. The efficacy of the bio-pesticides Amylo-X<sup>®</sup> (based on <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</em> subsp. <em>plantarum</em> strain D747) and Serenade Max<sup>®</sup> (strain QST713 of <em>B. subtilis</em>) was evaluated by <em>in vitro </em>and <em>in vivo</em> experiments. Both antagonists inhibited different biovars of the pathogen in <em>in vitro</em> assays; QST713 was more efficient than D747. The two <em>Bacillus </em>strains also colonized <em>A. deliciosa</em> flowers (<em>c</em>. 10<sup>5-7</sup> cfu per flower) up to 96 h after inoculation. D747 persisted on leaves (<em>c</em>. 10<sup>4-6</sup> cfu cm<sup>-2</sup>) up to 4 weeks after inoculation, during 2 years in Emilia Romagna and Latium regions of Italy. On flowers, the antagonists reduced pathogen populations, compared to untreated (control) flowers. On <em>A. deliciosa</em> and <em>A</em>. <em>chinensis</em> plants under controlled conditions, Amylo-X<sup>® </sup>reduced severity of bacterial canker, providing <em>ca</em>. 50% relative protection on <em>A. deliciosa</em> and 70% on <em>A</em>. <em>chinensis</em>. Serenade Max<sup>®</sup> was less effective, giving 0% relative protection on <em>A. deliciosa</em> and 40% on <em>A</em>. <em>chinensis</em>. In a field trial, on <em>A. deliciosa</em> plants, Amylo-X<sup>®</sup> reduced the severity of bacterial canker on leaves, providing <em>ca</em>. 40% relative protection. The sensitivity of both antagonistic strains to streptomycin sulphate was confirmed by testing the most used concentration where antibiotics are approved for management of bacterial pathogens.</p> Enrico BIONDI Lorenzo GALLIPOLI Angelo MAZZAGLIA Set Perez FUENTEALBA Nemanja KUZMANOVIĆ Assunta BERTACCINI Giorgio Balestra Copyright (c) 2021 Enrico BIONDI, Lorenzo GALLIPOLI, Angelo MAZZAGLIA, Set Perez FUENTEALBA, Nemanja KUZMANOVIĆ, Assunta BERTACCINI, Giorgio Balestra 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 215 228 10.36253/phyto-12184 First report of Didymosphaeria rubi-ulmifolii associated with canker and dieback of apple trees in southern Ethiopia <p>Cultivation of apple trees in the highlands of Ethiopia began in 1955. In 2014, blistering of the bark due to cankers on the main stems mostly below the grafting points, followed by dieback and eventually death of apple trees, was observed in apple orchards in the Hadiya Zone in Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify the causal agent of canker and dieback symptoms on the apple trees. Symptomatic trunks from 20 trees (ten per cultivar) were sampled. Isolations were performed from ten trunks (five per cultivar). Fungus colonies with similar cultural features were obtained from all the samples, and the morphology of a representative isolate was characterized. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and 5.8S rRNA gene, large subunit and actin gene regions confirmed the identity of two isolates as <em>Didymosphaeria rubi-ulmifolii. </em>Pathogenicity was confirmed for one isolate by inoculations of healthy branches of ‘Anna’ and ‘Dorsett Golden’ apple trees resulting in lesion formation, and subsequent re-isolation of the inoculated fungus. This study is the first report of <em>D</em>.<em> rubi-ulmifolii </em>associated with dieback of apple trees. This pathogen caused death of more than 26% of apple trees in one commercial orchard, and could cause severe losses for smallholder apple growers in Ethiopia. Future studies are required to assess the magnitude, distribution and management options of this economically important canker disease in Ethiopia.</p> Abraham YIRGU Alemu GEZAHGNE Tesfaye ALEMU Minette HAVENGA Lizel MOSTERT Copyright (c) 2021 Abraham YIRGU, Alemu GEZAHGNE, Tesfaye ALEMU, Minette HAVENGA, Lizel MOSTERT 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 229 236 10.36253/phyto-12400 Characterization of Lasiodiplodia species associated with grapevines in Mexico <p>Botryosphaeria dieback is one of the most prevalent grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), and is caused by fungi in the <em>Botryosphaeriaceae</em>. Fungi invade grapevine vascular systems mainly through pruning wounds, and cause cankers and necrotic lesions, which lead to grapevine decline and death. <em>Lasiodiplodia theobromae</em> has been reported as a highly virulent pathogen of grapevine, and was previously reported in Mexican vineyards. The taxonomy of <em>Lasiodiplodia</em> was recently revised, adding new species, and some were reduced to synonymy. This study aimed to characterize <em>Lasio-diplodia</em> producing grapevine dieback symptoms in Sonora and Baja California, Mexico. Using the phylogenetic markers <em>tef1</em>-α and ITS regions, <em>Lasiodiplodia brasiliensis, L. crassispora, L. exigua,</em> and <em>L. gilanensis </em>were identified. <em>Lasidiplodia exigua </em>was the most prevalent species. <em>Lasiodiplodia brasiliensis </em>and <em>L. gilanensis</em> were very virulent to ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ plants, while <em>L. exigua </em>and <em>L. gilanensis </em>were less virulent, and <em>L. crassispora</em> did not produce lesions at 2 months post-inoculation. The optimum temperature of the <em>Lasiodiplodia</em> spp. was 28°C, but all four species grew up to 37°C, and the isolates of <em>L. exigua </em>grew slowly at 40°C. This is the first report of the four of <em>Lasio-diplodia</em> species in vineyards of Mexico.</p> Edelweiss A. RANGEL-MONTOYA Marcos PAOLINELLI Philippe E. ROLSHAUSEN Cesar VALENZUELA-SOLANO Rufina HERNANDEZ-MARTINEZ Copyright (c) 2021 Edelweiss A. RANGEL-MONTOYA, Marcos PAOLINELLI, Philippe E. ROLSHAUSEN, Cesar VALENZUELA-SOLANO, Rufina HERNANDEZ-MARTINEZ 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 237 251 10.36253/phyto-12576 First report of Erwinia amylovora in Tuscany, Italy <p>2-years-old plants of <em>Pyrus communis</em> showing symptoms of fire blight disease were sampled in an orchard in Tuscany (Italy) during Autumn 2020. Plants were obtained the previous spring from a commercial nursery located in a region where the disease is present since 1994. The collected material was processed in the lab in order to verify the presence of the bacterium <em>Erwinia amylovora</em>, the causal agent of fire blight. Pure isolates showing white mucoid colonies and levan producers on Levan medium were putatively assimilated to <em>E. amylovora</em>. DNA was extracted from the cultures and analysed with three molecular assays, including duplex PCR of the 29-Kb plasmid pEA29 and the ams chromosomal region, sequencing of the 16S rDNA and <em>recA</em> gene regions, two real-time PCR assays on symptomatic plant tissues. All tests confirmed the presence of <em>E. amylovora</em>. Symptomatic and surrounding plants were removed and immediately destroyed according to the regional phytosanitary protocol. This outcome poses a serious threat for fruit orchards in the area.</p> Duccio MIGLIORINI Francesco PECORI Aida RAIO Nicola LUCHI Domenico RIZZO Carlo CAMPANI Lorenzo NERI Alberto SANTINI Copyright (c) 2021 Duccio MIGLIORINI, Francesco PECORI, Aida RAIO, Nicola LUCHI, Domenico RIZZO, Carlo CAMPANI, Lorenzo NERI, Alberto SANTINI 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 253 257 10.36253/phyto-12817 Identification of Plectosphaerella melonis from cucumber plants in Ukraine <p>A fungus was isolated from diseased roots of <em>Cucumis</em> <em>sativus</em> grown in greenhouses. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the isolate allowed it to be classified as <em>Plectosphaerella melonis</em>. BLASTn analysis revealed 99% homology of the ITS sequence from the isolate with 14 <em>Acremonium cucurbitacearum</em> and <em>P. melonis</em> isolates, allowing attribution of the isolate to <em>P. melonis</em> (syn. <em>A. cucurbitacearum</em>). Koch’s hypothesis requirements were fulfilled for the isolate. Symptoms on host roots developed after 14 d of growing cucumber plants on infested soil. Plants of the cucumber variety Nizhynskyi 12 were very susceptible at the two leaf growth stage (2 weeks after sowing). Above-ground disease symptoms were absent after 14 d, even with severely diseased roots. This is the first report of <em>P. melonis </em>on<em> C. sativus</em> in Ukraine.</p> Evgeniy KOPILOV Hanna TSEKHMISTER Olena NADKERNYCHNA Anna KYSLYNSKA Copyright (c) 2021 Evgeniy KOPILOV, Hanna TSEKHMISTER, Olena NADKERNYCHNA, Anna KYSLYNSKA 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 259 263 10.36253/phyto-12612 Starch-glyceryl monostearate edible coatings formulated with sodium benzoate control postharvest citrus diseases caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum <p>The curative antifungal activity of edible composite coatings (ECs) based on pregelatinized potato starch-glyceryl monostearate (PPS-GMS) formulated with or without sodium benzoate (SB) to control green mould (caused by <em>Penicillium digitatum</em>) and blue mould (<em>P. italicum</em>) was assessed on ‘Orri’ mandarins, ‘Valencia’ oranges and ‘Fino’ lemons. These fruit were artificially inoculated with <em>P. digitatum</em> or <em>P. italicum</em>, treated by immersion in coating emulsions and compared to uncoated control fruit immersed in water and fruit immersed in 2% SB (w/v) aqueous solution. Treated fruit were then stored at either 20°C or commercial low temperature (5°C for mandarins and oranges, 12°C for lemons). Coatings without SB did not exhibit antifungal activity, whereas coatings containing 2% SB reduced incidence and severity of green and blue moulds, in comparison to the controls, on all citrus species and in all storage conditions, without differing from the aplication of 2% SB alone. For example, incidence reduction on ‘Fino’ lemons was from 99 to 0% after 7 d at 20°C, and from 99 to 30% after 2 weeks at 12°C. None of the treatments was phytotoxic. These results indicate that applications of SB as antifungal ingredient of PPS-GMS based ECs is a promising non-polluting alternative to control Penicillium postharvest decay of citrus, and these ECs are effective substitutes for conventional waxes amended with synthetic fungicides.</p> Lourdes SOTO-MUÑOZ Victoria MARTÍNEZ-BLAY María B. PÉREZ-GAGO Asunción FERNÁNDEZ-CATALÁN Maricruz ARGENTE-SANCHIS Lluís PALOU Copyright (c) 2021 Lourdes SOTO-MUÑOZ, Victoria MARTÍNEZ-BLAY, María B. PÉREZ-GAGO, Asunción FERNÁNDEZ-CATALÁN, Maricruz ARGENTE-SANCHIS, Lluís PALOU 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 265 279 10.36253/phyto-12528 Ribosomal protein coding genes SSU12p and LSU36p as molecular markers for phytoplasma detection and differentiation <p>Detection and classification of phytoplasmas mainly rely on amplification of the 16S rRNA gene followed by RFLP analysis and/or sequencing, because these organisms lack complete phenotypic characterization. Other conserved genomic <em>loci</em> have been exploited as additional molecular markers for phytoplasma differentiation. Two <em>loci</em>, <em>SSU12p</em> and <em>LSU36p</em>, selected by whole-genome comparison of 12 phytoplasma strains, were used for primer design, and were successfully tested on DNA samples from plants infected by phytoplasmas belonging to ten 16S ribosomal groups. The phylogenetic trees inferred from <em>SSU12p</em> and <em>LSU36p</em> <em>loci</em> were highly congruent to the trees derived from 16S rRNA and <em>tuf</em> genes of the same phytoplasma strains. Virtual RFLP analysis of the amplified <em>SSU12p</em> gene showed distinct patterns for most of the phytoplasma ribosomal subgroups tested. These results show that&nbsp; <em>SSU12p</em> and <em>LSU36p</em> genes are reliable additional markers for phytoplasma detection and differentiation.</p> Weier CUI Alan ZAMORANO Nicolás QUIROGA Assunta BERTACCINI Nicola FIORE Copyright (c) 2021 Weier CUI, Alan ZAMORANO, Nicolás QUIROGA, Assunta BERTACCINI, Nicola FIORE 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 281 292 Identification, full-length genome sequencing, and field survey of citrus vein enation virus in Italy <p class="p1">Citrus vein enation virus (CVEV) was described in Spain and then it has been reported in several citrus growing areas of Asia, America and Australia. Here, the occurrence of CVEV in Italy has been documented for the first time. The full genome sequence of a CVEV Italian isolate (14Q) was determined by high-throughput sequencing and the presence of the virus was confirmed by RT-PCR and graft-transmission to indicator plants, from which the virus was recovered six-months post-inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length genome of CVEV isolates from different countries showed that they are phylogenetically related to each other based on their geographic origin, rather than on their host and that the Italian isolate is more closely related to the Spanish isolate than to the other ones. A field survey revealed the presence of CVEV in some areas of Campania region (southern Italy), prevalently infecting lemon trees. In the frame of this survey, kumquat was identified for the first time as a host of CVEV. No symptoms were observed in the field so far. The infection of asymptomatic hosts and the transmission by aphid species present in Italy increase the risk that the virus could further spread.</p> Maria MINUTOLO Maria CINQUE Giuseppe ALTAMURA Francesco DI SERIO Daniela ALIOTO Beatriz NAVARRO Copyright (c) 2021 Maria MINUTOLO, Maria CINQUE, Giuseppe ALTAMURA, Francesco DI SERIO, Daniela ALIOTO, Beatriz NAVARRO 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 293 301 10.36253/phyto-12180 Fungal pathogens associated with black foot of grapevine in China <p>Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are the most destructive diseases in grape-growing regions worldwide. Black foot is one of the important GTDs affecting young vineyards and nurseries. This disease has not been reported in China. During 2017 and 2019, field surveys were carried out in the Guangxi, Hebei, Ningxia, Shanxi, and Xinjiang provinces of China. Incidence of plants with black foot symptoms was 0.1% to 1% in the surveyed vineyards. Plant samples with poorly developed shoots and canes, chlorotic leaves, and necrotic trunks or roots were collected from the five provinces. In total, 50 fungal isolates were obtained from symptomatic tissues. Based on morphological and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses, five species were identified as <em>Cylindrocladiella lageniformis</em>, <em>Dactylonectria torresensis</em>,<em> D. macrodidyma</em>, <em>D. alcacerensis</em> and <em>Neonectria</em> sp.1<em>.</em> Pathogenicity was assessed using young, healthy detached green shoots of grapevine ‘Summer Black’ and potted 3-month-old ‘Summer Black’ cuttings. Inoculated detached shoots developed necroses after 7 d, and inoculated cuttings after 80 d. Fungi were re-isolated from necrotic lesions. Among the five species, <em>D. macrodidyma </em>was the most aggressive. This is the first report of <em>C. lageniformis, D. torresensis</em>,<em> D. macrodidyma</em>, <em>D. alcacerensis,</em> and <em>Neonectria</em> sp. 1 associated with black foot in China. This study has enhanced knowledge of the fungi associated with black foot in China, and will assist development of control measures for this disease.</p> Qingtong YE Wei ZHANG Jingyi JIA Xinghong LI Yueyan ZHOU Changping HAN Xuehong WU Jiye YAN Copyright (c) 2021 Qingtong YE, Wei ZHANG, Jingyi JIA, Xinghong LI, Yueyan ZHOU, Changping HAN, Xuehong WU, Jiye YAN 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 303 319 10.36253/phyto-12353 Physiological responses of ‘Italia’ grapevines infected with Esca pathogens <p>Physiological features were examined of a 20-year-old <em>Vitis vinifera</em> ‘Italia’ table grape vineyard cropped in Apulia, Italy. Healthy vines with no foliar symptoms and any indications of wood or berry alterations, vines with natural wood infections by <em>Phaeoacremonium minimum </em>(syn. <em>P</em>. <em>aleophilum</em>) and <em>Phaeomoniella</em> <em>chlamydospora</em> showing brown wood streaking symptoms, and vines naturally infected with <em>P. minimum</em>, <em>P. chlamydospora</em> and <em>Fomitiporia mediterranea</em> with brown wood streaking and white rot symptoms, were surveyed. Bleeding xylem sap, collected at bud-break from healthy vines showed the greatest total ascorbic acid level, while vines with brown wood streaking and white rot had the greatest viscosity coefficient, glutathione concentration, and plant growth regulator activities. Compared to healthy vines, leaves of wood affected vines, sampled during the unfolded leaf, fruit setting, cluster closing and bunch ripening vine growth stages, had reduced fresh and dry weights, total chlorophyll concentrations, and increased leaf surface area. Low ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione concentrations, weak redox state, and moderate levels of dehydroascorbic acid and oxidized glutathione were also detected in these vines. Analyses also detected reduced activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, ascorbate free radical reductase and glutathione reductase in diseased vines. The cell membrane damage, associated with lipid peroxidation, was coupled with high hydrogen peroxide concentrations. These changes could contribute to the cell death of leaves and foliar symptom development. The ascorbate-glutathione cycle supports grapevine susceptibility to Esca complex-associated fungi.</p> Giovanni Luigi BRUNO Maria Paola IPPOLITO Francesco MANNERUCCI Luca BRAGAZZI Franca TOMMASI Copyright (c) 2021 Giovanni Luigi BRUNO, Maria Paola IPPOLITO, Francesco MANNERUCCI, Luca BRAGAZZI, Franca TOMMASI 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 321 336 10.36253/phyto-12171 Ceratocystis ficicola causing a serious disease of Ficus carica in Greece <p><em>Ceratocystis ficicola</em> causes vascular wilt of fig trees in Japan, invading root systems and the main stems eventually leading to tree death. In surveys from 2018 to 2020 in fig orchards in Greece, this fungus was detected in two separated regions. The fungus was consistently isolated from infected wood and from rhizosphere soil. The isolates were identified based on multi-locus phylogenetic analyses of <em>rpb2, bt1 </em>and<em> tef1</em> gene regions and detailed morphological characteristics, including comparisons with an ex-type isolate of <em>C. ficicola</em> from Japan. The pathogenicity of Greek isolates was proven on <em>Ficus carica </em>and <em>F. benjamina</em> plants. <em>Ceratocystis ficicola</em> is a soil-borne pathogen, and the occurrence of vascular wilt outbreaks suggest that the pathogen spreads within and between orchards with infested soil and wood debris during ploughing. The pathogen is also spreading in Greece with infected propagation material. This is the first detailed report of <em>C. ficicola</em> outside Japan, and there is concern over potential spread of the pathogen to other Mediterranean countries, where approx. 70% of the world fig production occurs.</p> Panaghiotis TSOPELAS Nikoleta SOULIOTI Michael J. WINGFIIELD Irene BARNES Seonju MARINCOWITZ Eleftherios C. TJAMOS Epaminondas J. PAPLOMATAS Copyright (c) 2021 Panaghiotis TSOPELAS, Nikoleta SOULIOTI , Michael J. WINGFIIELD , Irene BARNES, Seonju MARINCOWITZ , Eleftherios C. TJAMOS, Epaminondas J. PAPLOMATAS 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 337 349 10.36253/phyto-12794 Fomitiporia mediterranea M. Fisch., the historical Esca agent: a comprehensive review on the main grapevine wood rot agent in Europe <p><em>Fomitiporia mediterranea</em> M. Fisch. (<em>Fmed</em>) is a basidiomycete first described in 2002, and was considered up to then as part of <em>Fomitiporia punctata</em> (P. Karst) Murrill. This fungus can degrade lignocellulosic biomass, causing white rot and leaving bleached fibrous host residues. In Europe<em> Fmed</em> is considered the main grapevine wood rot (Esca) agent within the Esca disease complex, which includes some of the most economically important Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTDs). This review summarises and evaluates published research on <em>Fmed</em>, on white rot elimination by curettage or management by treatments with specific products applied to diseased grapevines, and on the relationship between wood symptoms and Grapevine Leaf Stripe Disease (GLSD) in the Esca disease complex. Information is also reviewed on the fungus biology, mechanisms of pathogenicity, and their possible relationships with external foliar symptoms of the Esca disease complex. Information on <em>Fmed</em> control strategies is also reviewed.</p> Samuele MORETTI Andrea PACETTI Romain PIERRON Hanns-Heinz KASSEMEYER Michael FISCHER Jean-Pierre PÉROS Gabriel PEREZ-GONZALEZ Evie BIELER Marion SCHILLING Stefano DI MARCO Eric GELHAYE Laura MUGNAI Chritophe BERTSCH Sibylle FARINE Copyright (c) 2021 Samuele MORETTI, Andrea PACETTI, Romain PIERRON, Hanns-Heinz KASSEMEYER, Michael FISCHER, Jean-Pierre PÉROS, Gabriel PEREZ-GONZALEZ, Evie BIELER, Marion SCHILLING, Stefano DI MARCO, Eric GELHAYE, Laura MUGNAI, Chritophe BERTSCH, Sibylle FARINE 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 351 379 10.36253/phyto-13021 Adult plant resistance to white rust in Lunaria annua <p>Wild plants produce abundant seeds and seedlings, but most die before reaching maturity, and these premature deaths are often caused by pathogens. Major genes for resistance protect some seedlings or juveniles. These selected individuals can become a resistant, mature cohort. Alternatively, plants can exhibit mature, adult plant resistance. These two explanations can be indistinguishable in the field, when epidemics in natural pathosystems occur regularly resulting in annual selection for resistance. This study included multi-year observations of a biennial plant where the distinction could be made. White rust of <em>Lunaria annua</em>, a pathosystem native to the Mediterranean Basin, took time in its introduced range in Idaho, USA, to generate epidemics. After years of minimal white rust, an epidemic occurred in 2017 in which first-year, juvenile plants had 20 times the sorus density of second-year, adult plants. Since white rust incidence had been minimal for years prior to 2017, the greater resistance of 2017 adults over 2017 juveniles may have been due to adult-plant resistance. This could also be due to phenology: adult plants have mature leaves, and are flowering and maturing seed, by the time that white rust begins to build up on leaves of juveniles. The juvenile-adult difference was maintained in 2018. In white blister rusts, interpretation of resistance can also be complicated by the frequency of asymptomatic infections that adult plants would pass on to the next generation. However, we found no asymptomatic infection of seeds of <em>L. annua</em> in our sampling of the Idaho population.</p> Diana CERVANTES Mary RIDOUT Claudia NISCHWITZ George NEWCOMBE Copyright (c) 2021 Diana CERVANTES, Mary RIDOUT, Claudia NISCHWITZ, George NEWCOMBE 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 60 2 381 385 10.36253/phyto-12805