Phytopathologia Mediterranea <p><em>Phytopathologia Mediterranea</em> is an international open-access, peer-reviewed journal edited by the <a title="Mediterranean phytopathological union" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mediterranean Phytopathological Union</a>. The journal deals with the main areas of plant pathology as epidemiology, control, biochemical and physiological aspects, application of molecular biology techniques, applied to fungi, bacteria, phytoplasmas, viruses, viroids, nematodes, etc. Special attention is given to phytopathological problems of the Mediterranean area. The journal includes 3 issues per year in which a review paper, original research papers, short notes and new disease reports are published. It also includes Book reviews of interest for Mediterranean phytopathologists. Papers are published in English. Phytopathologia Mediterranea is covered by CAB, BIOSIS, AGRIS, Chemical Abstracts, CSA, JSTORE.</p> <p><em>Phytopathologia Mediterranea</em> is printed with the financial support of the Ministero per i Beni Culturali, Roma, Italy.</p> Firenze University Press en-US Phytopathologia Mediterranea 0031-9465 <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in PHYTO</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> Heterosporicola beijingense sp. nov. (Leptosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales) associated with Chenopodium quinoa leaf spots <p class="p1">A coelomycetous fungus with hyaline, aseptate, oblong to ellipsoidal conidia was isolated from living <em>Chenopodium quinoa</em> leaves with leaf spots, in Beijing, China. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of a combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF sequence dataset confirmed its placement in<em> Heterosporicola</em> in <em>Leptosphaeriaceae</em>. The new taxon resembles other <em>Heterosporicola</em> species, but is phylogenetically distinct, and is introduced as a new species. <em>Heterosporicola</em> <em>beijingense</em> sp. nov. is compared with other <em>Heterosporicola</em> species, and comprehensive descriptions and micrographs are provided.</p> Rashika S. BRAHMANAGE Mei LIU Dhanushka N. WANASINGHE Monika C. DAYARATHNE Li MEI Rajesh JEEWON Xinghong LI Kevin D. HYDE Copyright (c) 2020 Rashika Brahmanage 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 219 227 10.14601/Phyto-11113 Fungal pathogens associated with stem blight and dieback of blueberry in northern Italy <p class="p1"><em>Vaccinium </em>spp. are cultivated worldwide due to their important commercial value and fruit health benefits. However, the increasing global trade of berries and plants has resulted in major incidence of the diseases related to this crop. Stem blight and dieback associated with different fungal pathogens are the most common symptoms observed, and represent serious threats to blueberry production. Surveys were conducted in highbush blueberry orchards in Cuneo province, Northern Italy, to assess the fungal species diversity associated with stem blight and dieback. A total of 38 isolates were collected from symptomatic plants of the cultivars ‘Last Call’, ‘Blue Ribbon’ and ‘Top Shelf’. Four fungal species were identified through multi-locus typing and morphological characters: <em>Neofusicoccum parvum</em>, <em>Diaporthe rudis</em>, <em>Cadophora luteo</em>-<em>olivacea </em>and <em>Peroneutypa scoparia</em>. Molecular analyses included three different genomic regions: ITS, <em>tub2</em>, and <em>tef1</em>. Pathogenicity tests showed that all four species were pathogenic to blueberry plants. <em>Neofusicoccum parvum </em>was the most aggressive species. The present study increases understanding of the fungi associated with blueberry stem blight and dieback, providing preliminary knowledge for further studies on disease epidemiology and management strategies. This is the first report worldwide of <em>P. scoparia</em> and <em>C. luteo</em>-<em>olivacea</em> on <em>Vaccinium corymbosum</em>, as well as the first report of <em>D. rudis</em> on blueberry in Italy.</p> Vladimiro GUARNACCIA Ilaria MARTINO Giulia TABONE Luca BRONDINO M. Lodovica GULLINO Copyright (c) 2020 Vladimiro Guarnaccia, M. Lodovica Gullino 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 229 245 10.14601/Phyto-11278 Interactions between lime witches’ broom phytoplasma and selected phytoplasma strains of 16SrI, 16SrII, and 16SrIX groups in periwinkle <p>The interactions of lime witches’ broom (LWBP, 16SrII-B) with alfalfa witches’ broom (AWBP, 16SrII-C), tomato witches’ broom (TWBP, 16SrII-D), sesame phyllody (SPhP, 16SRIX-C) and rapeseed phyllody (RPhP, 16SrI-B) phytoplasmas were studied in periwinkle plants. Periwinkle plants were graft inoculated either with each phytoplasma alone or with LWBP and a second phytoplasma. The latter was inoculated either below or above the site of LWBP inoculation, and either simultaneously or non-simultaneously. In all treatments and all replications, plants doubly inoculated with LWBP+SPhP or LWBP+AWBP showed significantly milder symptoms and lived longer than those singly inoculated with LWBP, SPhP, or AWBP. In plants with mixed infection by LWBP+RPhP or LWBP+TWBP, characteristic symptoms of contributing strains were seen regardless of relative inoculation order and inoculation site. Analysis of the data obtained by quantitative PCR showed that the mean concentration of LWBP in all doubly inoculated plants was significantly lower than in plants inoculated with LWBP alone. Among four phytoplasmas, SPhP was more effective in decreasing the concentration of LWBP, followed in order by AWBP, TWBP, and RPhP. Also, in mixed infections, more decrease in LWBP concentration was found in non-simultaneous inoculations and when the second phytoplasma was inoculated below the site of LWBP inoculation. Based on analyses of the symptoms and quantitative PCR data, it seems that interactions of LWBP+SPhP and LWBP+AWBP are of high mutual antagonism while those of LWBP+RPhP and LWBP+TWBP phytoplasmas are less-antagonistic. Significance of these findings is discussed.</p> Elham SALEHI Keramatollah IZADPANAH Seyed Mohsen TAGHAVI Habiballah HAMZEHZARGHANI Alireza AFSHARIFAR Mohammad SALEHI Copyright (c) 2020 Elham Salehi, K. Izadpanah, Seyed Mohsen Taghavi, Habiballah Hamzehzarghani, Alireza Afsharifar, Mohammad Salehi 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 247 259 10.14601/Phyto-11035 Comparison of conventional and novel molecular diagnostic methods for detection of Xylella fastidiosa from insect vectors <p class="p1">The efficiency of three diagnostic methods, i.e. PCR, real-time PCR and LAMP, for detection of <em>Xylella fastidiosa</em> (<em>Xf</em>) genomic DNA from <em>Philaenus spumarius</em> (<em>Ps</em>) and <em>Neophilaenus campestris</em> (<em>Nc</em>) insect vectors was evaluated using three total nucleic acids (TNA) extraction methods (EM). In addition, a new real-time LAMP technology, Fluorescence of Loop Primer Upon Self Dequenching-LAMP (FLOS-LAMP), originally developed for human virus diagnoses, was optimized and assessed for detection of Xf in insect vectors. EM1 consisted of entire insects heated in an extraction buffer (EB) containing Tris-EDTA and TRITON-X100. In EM2, TNAs were extracted only from excised heads of insects, and heated again in the EB of EM1. EM3 consisted of grinding entire insects, heads and bodies recuperated from EM2, with a CTAB buffer. The molecular analyses conducted on 100 specimens of Ps and 50 of Nc, collected from a Xf-infected olive orchard (Lecce province, Italy), showed that 29% of specimens (40 Ps and four Nc) were positive to the presence of Xf. The comparison between the three methods revealed that EM3 is the most efficient for extracting Xf-genomic DNA from insect vectors, of which 44 specimens were positive for Xf in each of the diagnostic methods used, including the newly optimized FLOS-LAMP assay. In general, the real-time PCR and LAMP assays were more competent than the conventional PCR for detection of Xf in insect vectors, independently from the EM used. The newly optimized FLOS-LAMP technique had a detection limit of 1 fg μL<sup>-1</sup> of Xf-genomic DNA, compared to the 10 fg μL<sup>-1</sup> for conventional LAMP. The high sensitivity of the FLOS-LAMP was evident through the greater number of overall Xf-infected insect vectors detected (60%), compared to those for LAMP (45%,), real-time PCR (28%) and PCR (10%). FLOS-LAMP, being a more sensitive and specific assay, together with EM3, were the most appropriate approaches for an accurate detection of Xf in insect vectors.</p> Ornella INCERTI Hiba DAKROUB Motasem KHASIB Vincenzo CAVALIERI Toufic ELBEAINO Copyright (c) 2020 Toufic Elbeaino, Ornella Incerti, Hiba Dakroub, Vincenzo Cavalieri 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 261 267 10.14601/Phyto-11222 New insights into scabby canker of Opuntia ficus-indica, caused by Neofusicoccum batangarum <p class="p1">This study characterizes a fungal disease of cactus pear (<em>Opuntia ficus-indica</em>, <em>Cactaceae</em>), reported from the minor islands of Sicily. The disease, originally named ‘gummy canker’, was first reported in 1973 from Linosa, a small island of the Pelagian archipelago, south of Sicily. The causal agent was identified as <em>Dothiorella ribis</em> (currently <em>Neofusicoccum ribis</em>, <em>Botryosphaeriaceae</em>). In a recent survey the disease has been found to be widespread in minor islands around Sicily, including Lampedusa, Linosa, Favignana and Ustica. The causal agent was identified in <em>Botryosphaeriaceae</em> as <em>Neofusicoccum batangarum</em> on the basis of the phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequences from ITS, <em>tef1</em> and <em>tub2</em> sequences, and the disease was renamed ‘scabby canker’, which describes the typical symptoms on cactus pear cladodes. In artificial inoculations, <em>N. batangarum</em> induced symptoms on cactus pear cladodes identical to those observed in naturally infected plants. The fungus also induced cankers on artificially wound-inoculated stems of several common Mediterranean plants including Aleppo pine (<em>Pinus halepensis</em>), almond (<em>Prunus dulcis</em>), sweet orange (<em>Citrus ×</em> <em>sinensis</em>), citrange (<em>Citrus sinensis</em> <em>×</em> <em>Poncirus trifoliata</em>) and holm oak (<em>Quercus ilex</em>), indicating that the pathogen has a wide potential host range. Isolates of <em>N. batangarum</em> from cactus pear from several small islands around Sicily were genetically uniform, as inferred from microsatellite primed (MSP)-PCR electrophoretic profiles, suggesting the pathogen populations in these islands have a common origin. A preliminary report of the identity of the causal agent of this disease has been published as the first record of <em>N. batangarum</em> in Europe and on cactus pear worldwide.</p> Francesco ALOI Selene GIAMBRA Leonardo SCHENA Giuseppe SURICO Antonella PANE Giorgio GUSELLA Claudia STRACQUADANIO Santella BURRUANO Santa Olga CACCIOLA Copyright (c) 2020 Santa Olga Cacciola, Francesco ALOI, Selene GIAMBRA, Leonardo SCHENA, Giuseppe SURICO, Antonella PANE, Giorgio GUSELLA, Claudia STRACQUADANIO, Santella BURRUANO 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 269 284 10.14601/Phyto-11225 Unraveling the infection process of garlic by Fusarium proliferatum, the causal agent of root rot <p class="p1">Since the mid-2000s, and despite demanding production rules, <em>Fusarium proliferatum</em> (Matsushima) Niremberg has been found on garlic heads during storage inducing root and bulbs rots. Brown spots on the surface of garlic cloves and water-soaking of heads were noted. Histological observations of the fungus during early stages of infection were made from clove to the cellular levels. <em>Fusarium proliferatum</em> germinates, colonizes roots and degrades the outer root and parechchyma cell layers 72 h post inoculation. Conidium germination and host colonization are facilitated by the emergence of garlic roots, creating cellular debris and natural wounds. Hyphae of the pathogen did not penetrate healthy host cells and appeared to degrade them before penetration. These results provide understanding of when and how quickly <em>F. prolife-ratum</em> penetrates garlic bulbs. This is a primary step towards elucidating the life cycle of this pathogen during the garlic drying process, and development of an efficient and sustainable bulb rot management strategy.</p> Paul L. CHRÉTIEN Sandrine LAURENT Isabelle BORNARD Claire TROULET Mohamed EL MAÂTAOUI Christel LEYRONAS Copyright (c) 2020 Paul L. Chrétien, Sandrine Laurent, Isabelle Bornard, Claire Troulet, Mohamed El Maataoui, Christel Leyronas 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 285 293 10.14601/Phyto-11103 Determining intra-host genetic diversity of Citrus tristeza virus. What is the minimal sample size? <p class="p1">Intra-host populations of plant RNA viruses are genetically diverse. Due to frequent reinfections, these populations often include phylogenetically distant variants that may have different biological properties. Random selection of variants, which occurs during host-to-host virus transmission, may affect isolate pathogenicity. Accurate characterization of genetic variants in intra-host virus populations is therefore epidemiologically important. In routine molecular characterization of <em>Citrus tristeza virus</em> (CTV) isolates, common practice is to analyze only a few cDNA clones per isolate. In the present study, based on the characterization of CTV populations displaying different levels of genetic diversity, we evaluated if analyzing large numbers of clones increased diversity parameters. A sequential sampling approach, based on analysis of genetic richness. is proposed for determining the minimal sample size required to obtain reliable information on levels of CTV genetic diversity.</p> Silvija ČERNI Zlatko ŠATOVIĆ Jelena RUŠČIĆ Gutavo NOLASCO Dijana ŠKORIĆ Copyright (c) 2020 Silvija Černi, Zlatko Šatović, Jelena Ruščić, Gutavo Nolasco, Dijana Škorić 2020-07-18 2020-07-18 59 2 295 302 10.14601/Phyto-11276 Emerging leafy vegetable crop diseases caused by the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex <p class="p1"><em>Fusarium equiseti</em>, a member of the <em>Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti </em>species complex (FIESC), has recently been reported in Italy as the causal agent of a leaf spot diseases on previously unrecorded plant hosts. This emerging disease has affected leafy vegetable hosts including lettuce, lamb’s lettuce, wild rocket, cultivated rocket, spinach and radish, and has caused symptoms that have not been previously described on those plants. Fifty-two fungal isolates obtained from symptomatic plants and different plant organs were identified according to their morphology as belonging to the FIESC. The present study aimed to characterize these isolates by identifying their FIESC phylogenetic species, and to evaluate their pathogenicity and host ranges. Six phylogenetically different species of FIESC were identified using MLST analyses of four loci (<em>tef1</em>, <em>cmdA</em>, <em>tub2</em>, and IGS). Most of the isolates were found to belong to <em>F. compactum</em> or <em>F. clavum</em>, while the other four FIESC species were represented by only a few isolates. All the fungal isolates were capable of inducing leaf spot diseases as single isolates with fulfilling Koch’s postulates for these fungi. The intraspecies diversity of the FIESC, the seed-originated isolates of four FIESC identified species, and enhanced range of experimental hosts were observed in the FIESC emerging diseases of these vegetable hosts in Italy. Strict seed inspection procedures, and suitable alteration of environmentally friendly fungicides and biological control agents should achieve efficient management of the FIESC leaf spot diseases on vegetable crops, and prevent further spread of these pathogens to new hosts and new geographical areas.</p> Slavica MATIĆ Giulia TABONE Maria Lodovica GULLINO Angelo GARIBALDI Vladimiro GUARNACCIA Copyright (c) 2020 Slavica Matic, Giulia Tabone, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Angelo Garibaldi 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 303 317 10.14601/Phyto-10883 Postharvest application of hot water and putrescine treatments reduce brown rot and improve shelf life and quality of apricots <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Iran is an important apricot production and export country. Postharvest losses of apricots from brown rot (caused by <em>Monilinia</em> spp.) are major concerns for producers. Effects were assessed of postharvest hot water, putrescine and acetic acid treatments on apricot quality and shelf life. After treatment applications, fruit were cold stored at 5°C and 80% (±5%) relative humidity for 40 d. During this period, physical and physiological properties of the apricots were evaluated at 10-d intervals. Parameters assessed were fruit weight, decay, firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and skin colour values (<em>L*</em>, <em>a*</em>, <em>b*</em>). The 55°C hot water and 2.0 mM putrescine treatments gave the least fruit weight loss, brown rot incidence, and firmness loss after 40 of storage. For all treatments, fruit total soluble solids increased during storage, and these were greatest for the control (untreated) apricots. Apricots treated with hot water and putrescine had the greatest titratable acidity. The skin colour of all untreated and treated apricots improved throughout storage (from red to deep yellow). These data support the use of postharvest hot water and putrescine treatments for improved quality of apricots during storage. The scaling up of these treatments to packinghouse situations is important for evaluation of their technical and economic feasibility.</span></p> Mehdi HOSSEINIFARAHI Seyedeh Marzieh MOUSAVI Mohsen RADI Mohammad Mahdi JOWKAR Gianfranco ROMANAZZI Copyright (c) 2020 Mehdi Hosseinifarahi, Seyedeh Marzieh Mousavi, Mohsen Radi, Mohammad Mahdi Jowkar, Gianfranco Romanazzi 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 59 2 319 329 10.14601/Phyto-10751 Origanum vulgare essential oil vapour impedes Botrytis cinerea development on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) fruit <p class="p1"><em>Botrytis cinerea&nbsp;</em>infections of <em>Vitis</em> spp. fruits cause major economic losses, and grape producers rely on synthetic and copper-based fungicides for control of this pathogen. These pesticides present risks for human health and the environment. Implementation of low-impact disease management solutions is important for improving sustainability of viticulture industries. This study investigated the effects of <em>Origanum vulgare</em> (oregano) essential oil (EO) as an antifungal agent. <em>In vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> experiments with <em>B. cinerea</em>&nbsp;were carried out using a vaporization system to circumvent drawbacks of direct EO application. <em>In vitro</em> experiments confirmed the effectiveness of EO vapour treatments, which gave 100% inhibition of <em>B. cinerea </em>growth. Treatment of <em>V. vinifera</em> cv. Chasselas berries&nbsp;resulted in a 73% reduction in fungal growth, confirming the efficacy of the oregano EO vapour for control of grey mould caused by <em>B. cinerea</em>. This study has demonstrated the efficacy of EOs in the vapour phase on grape berries, which provides new possibilities for development of in-field or greenhouse vaporization systems that can reduce the use of synthetic and copper-based fungicides.</p> Andrea BURGGRAF Markus RIENTH Copyright (c) 2020 Markus Rienth 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 59 2 331 344 10.14601/Phyto-11605 Plenodomus biglobosus on oilseed rape in Hungary <p class="p1">The commonly occurring blackleg is an economically important disease in oilseed rape cultivation. This disease is caused by a complex of two closely related species, <em>Plenodomus lingam</em> and <em>P. biglobosus</em>. To date, only <em>P. lingam</em> (syn.: <em>Leptosphaeria maculans</em>) has been known in Hungary as the cause of blackleg in oilseed rape crops. The present study aimed to determine if <em>P. biglobosus </em>(syn.:<em> Leptosphaeria biglobosa</em>) was present in Hungary<em>. </em>The two fungus pathogens are difficult to distinguish using conventional morphological criteria. Reliable detection and differentiation of the two species can only be achieved using molecular methods. This is the first report describing the pathogen, <em>P. biglobosus</em>, in Hungary.</p> Bianka BAGI Csaba NAGY Annamaria TOTH László PALKOVICS Marietta PETRÓCZY Copyright (c) 2020 Marietta Petroczy, Bianka Bagi, Annamaria Toth, Csaba Nagy, László Palkovics 2020-07-18 2020-07-18 59 2 345 351 10.14601/Phyto-11099 A new leaf spot disease of Chamaerops humilis caused by Palmeiromyces chamaeropicola gen. et sp. nov. <p class="p1">In September 2018, a leaf spot disease was noticed on a European fan palm (<em>Chamaerops humilis </em>L.) in Oeiras, Portugal. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the causative agent of this disease symptom. Morphological characters and phylogenetic data derived from ITS and LSU sequences revealed that the leaf spot was caused by a filamentous fungus in the <em>Mycosphaerellales</em>, as a unique lineage within the <em>Teratosphaeriaceae</em>. This pathogen is introduced here as a new genus and species, <em>Palmeiromyces chamaeropicola</em> D.R.S. Pereira &amp; A.J.L. Phillips, the cause of a newly reported leaf disease on <em>Chamaerops humilis</em>.</p> Diogo R.S. PEREIRA Alan J.L. PHILLIPS Copyright (c) 2020 Alan J.L. Phillips, Diogo Pereira 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 353 363 10.14601/Phyto-11213 Stem rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum on Mammillaria painteri in Italy <p class="p1">Potted plants of <em>Mammillaria painteri</em> (<em>Cactaceae</em>) showing symptoms of stem rot were collected from a nursery in Imperia province, Liguria region, Italy. Isolations from internal rotting tissues allowed gave constantly similar fungal colonies. Morphological characteristics of the isolates identified them as <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em>. Molecular analyses of the elongation factor 1α (<em>EF1α</em>) and <em>RPB2</em> genes confirmed the identification. Analysis of part of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of the ribosomal DNA identified the pathogen as <em>F. oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>opuntiarum</em>. In pathogenicity tests, stems of <em>M. painteri</em> plants were inoculated with representative <em>F. oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>opuntiarum</em> isolates. Approx. 30 d after the inoculation, yellowing appeared around the inoculated wounds. The inoculated stems then rotted developing symptoms similar to those observed in greenhouse-grown plants. This is the first report of <em>F. oxysporum </em>f. sp.<em> opuntiarum</em> on <em>M. painteri.</em></p> Domenico BERTETTI Pietro PENSA Slavica MATIĆ Maria Lodovica GULLINO Angelo GARIBALDI Copyright (c) 2020 Domenico Bertetti 2020-09-06 2020-09-06 59 2 365 369 10.14601/Phyto-11735 Identification and characterization of the first complete genome sequence of prune dwarf virus in China <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><em>Prune dwarf virus</em> (PDV), a species of the genus<em> Ilarvirus</em> in the family <em>Bromoviridae</em>, is one of the most common viruses infecting stone fruit (<em>Prunus</em> spp.) trees worldwide. The complete genome sequence of a sweet cherry isolate of PDV (PDV-DL) from Dalian, Liaoning Province, China was determined in this study. The RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 of PDV-DL were 3,376 nt, 2,594 nt and 2,129 nt in size, respectively, and had the same genome organization with those previously reported. Compared to other PDV genomes in GenBank, PDV-DL shared pairwise identities of 91.1-97.4%, 87.2-99.0% and 88.1-96.9% for RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on near full-length RNA3 sequences clustered 14 PDV isolates into three groups and PDV-DL showed the closest relationship with a peach isolate PCH4 from Australia and an experimental isolate CH137 from USA. Nine recombination events were predicted in genomic RNA1-3 among all of the PDV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the complete genome sequence of PDV in China, which provided the basis for further studies on the molecular evolution of PDV, and helped for molecular diagnostics and control of the diseases caused by PDV.</p> Shuang SONG Lei ZHANG Qiang WANG Jun-hua ZHANG Zheng-Nan LI Copyright (c) 2020 Zheng-Nan Li 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 371 376 10.14601/Phyto-11492 Protective effects of mycorrhizal association in tomato and pepper against Meloidogyne incognita infection, and mycorrhizal networks for early mycorrhization of low mycotrophic plants <p class="p1">Root knot nematodes are obligate phytoparasites that invade the roots of important crop plants causing severe economic losses. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are soil borne microorganisms that establish mutualistic associations with the roots of most plants. AMF have been frequently indicated to help their host to attenuate the damage caused by pathogens and predators. In this study, the effects of a commercial inoculum of AMF against <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em> on tomato and pepper were evaluated under controlled conditions. Mycorrhizal association decreased <em>M. incognita</em> development in pepper, and improved tolerance to nematode infection in tomato plants. Rapid plant mycorrhization is critical for delivering protective effects against biotic stress. A novel mycorrhization technique using AMF from the highly mycotrophic plant sorghum was applied to tomato. More rapid mycorrhization was achieved in tomato plants grown in soil containing mycorrhized roots of sorghum than in plants directly inoculated with the commercial AMF.</p> Melvin RODRIGUEZ-HEREDIA Caroline DJIAN-CAPORALINO Michel PONCHET Laurent LAPEYRE Renaud CANAGUIER Ariane FAZARI Nathalie MARTEAU Benoit INDUSTRI Marie OFFROY-CHAVE Copyright (c) 2020 Melvin Rodriguez Heredia, Marie Offroy-Chave, Laurent Lapeyre, Caroline Djian-Caporalino, Michel Ponchet, Benoit Industri, Nathalie Marteau, Ariane Fazari 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 59 2 377 384 10.14601/Phyto-11637 Increasing diversity of resistance breaking pepper strains of Tomato spotted wilt virus in the Mediterranean region <p class="p1"><em>Tomato spotted wilt virus</em> (TSWV) is an important plant pathogen, causing economic impacts on crop production, especially in vegetable crops, including pepper. Resistance breeding is the most effective technique to manage TSWV epidemics. In pepper, the&nbsp;<em>Tsw</em>&nbsp;resistance gene is used. However, rapid emergence of resistance breaking (RB) strains of TSWV has hampered the control of TSWV. RB strains have previously shown clear geographic distribution that parallel each similar wild type (WT) strain. The present study collected pepper-infecting RB TSWV strains in limited districts of Spain and Turkey, and these strains clustered to two main clades based on the NSs protein amino acid sequences. Results verified the coexistence of the different strains in both countries. On the basis of amino acid sequence comparison of the collected isolates, common alteration responsible for resistance breaking was not identified in accordance with the preceding observations. These results emphasize the increasing diversity of the RB TSWV strains.</p> Asztéria ALMÁSI Katalin NEMES Katalin SALÁNKI Copyright (c) 2020 Katalin Salánki, Asztéria Almási, Katalin Nemes 2020-09-06 2020-09-06 59 2 385 391 10.14601/Phyto-11346