Phytopathologia Mediterranea https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm <p><em>Phytopathologia Mediterranea</em> is an international open-access, peer-reviewed journal edited by the <a title="Mediterranean phytopathological union" href="http://www.mpunion.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mediterranean Phytopathological Union</a>. The journal deals with the main areas of plant pathology as epidemiology, control, biochemical and physiological aspects, application of molecular biology techniques, applied to fungi, bacteria, phytoplasmas, viruses, viroids, nematodes, etc. Special attention is given to phytopathological problems of the Mediterranean area. The journal includes 3 issues per year in which a review paper, original research papers, short notes and new disease reports are published. It also includes Book reviews of interest for Mediterranean phytopathologists. Papers are published in English. Phytopathologia Mediterranea is covered by CAB, BIOSIS, AGRIS, Chemical Abstracts, CSA, JSTORE.</p> <p><em>Phytopathologia Mediterranea</em> is printed with the financial support of the Ministero per i Beni Culturali, Roma, Italy.</p> Firenze University Press en-US Phytopathologia Mediterranea 0031-9465 <p>Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">CC-BY-4.0</a>)</strong>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in PHYTO</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> Molecular analysis of grapevine Pinot gris virus and its association with grapevine leaf mottling and deformation on ‘Vermentino’ grapevines in Sardinia https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/12947 <p class="p1">In 2017–2018, grapevines of cultivar ‘Vermentino’ infected with grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) in Sardinia, Italy, exhibited leaf symptoms of mosaic, chlorotic mottling, and curling, and stunted shoots. Disease incidence assessed in 2018 was greater (67%, 103 symptomatic plants out of 153 monitored) than in 2017 (26%, 40 of 153 plants). All symptomatic samples tested by RT-PCR were positive for GPGV in both years, while 70% (53 of 76) of the asymptomatic samples in 2017, and 42% (19 of 45) in 2018, were also positive for GPGV. Characterizing six GPGV isolates from ‘Vermentino’ by RT-PCR and sequencing of a genomic fragment covering the movement and coat protein genes showed high conservation at the nucleotide level (98.7% to 100.0%) among Sardinian isolates and isolates for which sequence information is available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most Sardinian GPGV isolates grouped with other European isolates. This is the first characterization of GPGV in a Sardinian vineyard.</p> Nicola Schianchi Safa Oufensou Gabriele Moro Salvatorica Serra Vanda Assunta Prota Copyright (c) 2022 Nicola Schianchi, Safa Oufensou, Gabriele Moro, Salvatorica Serra, Vanda Assunta Prota https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 61 1 3 9 10.36253/phyto-12947 Candidate marker genes and enzymes for selection of potato with resistance to early blight, caused by Alternaria alternata https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/12852 <p class="p1">Early blight, caused by <em>Alternaria alternata </em>(Fr.) Keissler is a serious disease of potato and other cultivated <em>Solanum</em> species. The molecular components defining defense responses to <em>A. alternata </em>in potato are limited. Host transcript accumulation after <em>A. alternata</em> inoculation of six potato genotypes (10/33/R1, 3/33/R2 and 21/33/R2, resistant to the pathogen, and 8707/106, 8703/804 and 8707/112, susceptible) was examined to develop understanding of mechanisms of their responses to <em>A. alternata</em> genotypes. The marker genes<em> PR-2</em>, <em>ChtA</em>, <em>PR-5</em>, <em>PR1-b</em>, <em>PIN2</em>, <em>ERF3</em>, <em>PAL</em> and <em>LOX</em>, activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPOs) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), as well as biomass growth parameters, were analysed. Expression of <em>PR-2</em>, <em>ChtA</em>, <em>PR-5</em>, <em>PR1-b</em> and <em>PAL</em> genes was greatly increased in the inoculated resistant genotypes compared to the susceptible genotypes and un-inoculated controls. Transcription levels of <em>PIN2</em>, <em>ERF3</em> and <em>LOX</em> genes were decreased in resistant inoculated plants. Simultaneously, activities of POX, SOD and PPOs were greatly increased in the inoculated resistant host genotypes, compared to the susceptible and non-inoculated controls. CAT activity in genotype 21/33/R2 and PAL activity in resistant genotypes 21/33/R2 and 10/33/R1 increased in the susceptible and non-inoculated. Host growth parameters of inoculated plants decreased compared to un-inoculated controls. Knowledge of changes in gene expression levels and enzyme production in defense processes in infected potato plants can inform future studies to identify the defense mechanisms, and assist generation of potato cultivars resistant to early blight.</p> Neda Peymani Ahmad Reza Golparvar Mehdi Nasresfahani Esmaeeil Mahmoudi Majid Shams Copyright (c) 2022 Neda Peymani, Ahmad Reza Golparvar, Mehdi Nasresfahani, Esmaeeil Mahmoudi, Majid Shams https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 61 1 11 26 10.36253/phyto-12852 Efficacy of chemical and biological spray seed treatments in preventing garlic dry rot https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13103 <p class="p1">Garlic dry rot caused by <em>Fusarium proliferatum</em> is an emerging postharvest disease that has resulted in severe economic losses, necessitating design and implementation of efficient disease control strategies. Sanitation of planting cloves is critical for preventing garlic dry rot. This study evaluated the efficacy of commercial chemicals and biocontrol agents, applied at planting as spray treatments, for reducing disease severity and the occurrence of <em>Fusarium</em> spp. in garlic, from the field stage then through 9 months of postharvest storage. Tebuconazole was the most effective for reducing disease severity, giving 26.5% reduction of basal plate rots and 44% reduction of bulb rots, and 33.4% reduction in visible symptoms on cloves relative to the untreated controls. Comparable results were obtained by applying <em>B. subtilis </em>and<em> S. griseoviridis</em>. However, none of the active ingredients tested in this study reduced the incidence of <em>F. oxysporum</em> and <em>F. proliferatum</em> on basal plates, although tebuconazole reduced the postharvest incidence of <em>F. proliferatum</em> on cloves by nearly 50%. Incidence of <em>F. proliferatum</em> increased by 37% in bulbs transferred from storage to room temperature (25°C) for 15 days, simulating storage in consumers’ homes. These results demonstrate that spray seed clove treatments have inhibitory effects on postharvest garlic dry rot, although further research is required to determine the persistence of these treatments during prolonged storage, especially without low temperatures.</p> Letizia Mondani Giorgio Chiusa Paola Battilani Copyright (c) 2022 Letizia Mondani, Giorgio Chiusa, Paola Battilani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 61 1 27 37 10.36253/phyto-13103 Characterization of Stemphylium spp. associated with tomato foliar diseases in Algeria https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13033 <p class="p1">Leaf blight and spot caused by <em>Stemphylium</em> spp. and <em>Alternaria</em> spp. are the most common destructive tomato diseases in north-western Algeria. During 2018 growing seasons, more than 30% of samples collected from plants grown in greenhouses or open fields were infected with <em>Stemphylium</em>. Initial symptoms were small, multiple, irregular to oval, yellow leaf spots, which enlarged to brown lesions later. In these lesions, <em>Stemphylium</em> mostly co-occurred with <em>Alternaria</em> spp. Twenty nine <em>Stemphylium</em> isolates were characterized based on morphological features, and multi-locus phylogenies using <em>ITS</em>, <em>gpd</em>, and <em>cmdA</em> genomic loci. Five <em>Stemphylium</em> species (<em>S. lycopersici</em>, <em>S. gracilariae</em>, <em>S. eturmiunum</em>, <em>S. vesicarium</em>, <em>S. lycii</em>) were associated with tomato leaf spot, of which <em>S. lycii</em> is a new report for tomato. Pathogenicity tests on healthy 2-months-old tomato seedlings reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in tomato crops. The tested fungus isolates differed in pathogenicity. Two isolates of <em>S. lycopersici</em> were more aggressive than those of the other species, causing major lesions on tomato plants. The five identified <em>Stemphylium </em>species are reported for the first time as new pathogens for tomato in Algeria, and <em>S. lycopersici</em>, <em>S. gracilariae, S. eturmiunum, </em>and <em>S. lycii</em> as new species of Algerian mycoflora.</p> Nabahat Bessadat Bruno Hamon Nelly Bataille-Simoneau Justine Colou Kihal Mabrouk Philippe Simoneau Copyright (c) 2022 Nabahat Bessadat, Bruno Hamon, Nelly Bataille-Simoneau, Justine Colou, Kihal Mabrouk, Philippe Simoneau https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 61 1 39 53 10.36253/phyto-13033 Genotype variation of citrus tristeza virus after passage on different hosts, and changes in the virus genotype populations by the vector Aphis gossypii https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/12965 <p class="p1">Phylogenetic analyses categorize seven genotypes of citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The symptoms caused by this pathogen, their expression and severity are influenced by CTV genotypes, host species, cultivars, and infected host rootstocks. This study aimed to verify how populations of Chilean CTV isolates changed following inoculation from infected sweet orange to Mexican lime trees, and to determine if CTV genotype populations influenced transmission efficiency <em>via</em> <em>Aphis gossypii</em>. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed variation in genotypes of populations of CTV in Mexican lime, after graft inoculations using infected sweet orange chip-buds. Severe genotypes (VT) were detected after inoculation of mild isolate CTV populations (T30). The T30 donor populations also reduced transmissibility <em>via</em> <em>A. gossypii</em>; however, these results may not be conclusive due to mixture with the VT genotype. There is evidence of high rates of virus acquisition by this aphid species, but also low transmission efficiency, which may partially explain the historical absence of <em>tristeza </em>epidemics in Chile.</p> Rocio Camps Nicola Fiore Natalia Riquelme Wilson Barros-Parada Ximena Besoain Copyright (c) 2022 Rocio Camps, Nicola Fiore, Natalia Riquelme, Wilson Barros-Parada, Ximena Besoain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 61 1 55 63 10.36253/phyto-12965 Rutin-stevioside and related conjugates for potential control of grapevine trunk diseases https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13108 <p class="p1">Flavonoids and phenolic acids play roles in grapevine defence against pathogens causing grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs). Rutin is a major flavonoid in vegetative organs of the grapevines, and this compound, unlike other flavonoids, is non-toxic and non-oxidizable. Rutin was assayed <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> against two <em>Botryosphaeriaceae</em> taxa. The limited bioavailability of this compound was circumvented by conjugation with stevioside, a glycoside obtained from <em>Stevia rebaudiana</em>. Clear synergistic effects were observed for the stevioside-rutin adduct, resulting in EC<sub>50</sub> and EC<sub>90</sub> values of 306.0 and 714.9 μg·mL<sup>-1</sup> against <em>Neofusicoccum parvum</em> and 241.6 and 457.8 μg·mL<sup>-1</sup> against <em>Dothiorella viticola</em>. In greenhouse experiments, moderate inhibition of <em>N. parvum</em> growth and complete inhibition of <em>D. viticola</em> were observed. These inhibitory effects were greater than those of ferulic acid, which has been considered the most effective phenolic acid against GTDs. Conjugation with stevioside provided solubility enhancement of rutin, paving the way to the design of glycopesticides based on rutin-rich plant extracts as promising antifungals against GTDs.</p> Laura Buzón-Durán Natalia Langa-Lomba Vicente González-García José Casanova-Gascón Eva Sánchez-Hernández Jesús Martín-Gil Pablo Martín Ramos Copyright (c) 2022 Laura Buzón-Durán, Natalia Langa-Lomba, Vicente González-García, José Casanova-Gascón, Eva Sánchez-Hernández, Jesús Martín-Gil, Pablo Martín Ramos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 61 1 65 77 10.36253/phyto-13108 Identity and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae and Diaporthaceae from Juglans regia in Chile https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/12832 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">English walnut (<em>Juglans regia</em>) has become an important crop in Chile, representing 11.5% of the total area of fruit trees, surpassed only by grapevine. As the Chilean walnut industry rapidly expands, young orchards are at risk from the emergence of new fungal diseases. <em>Botryosphaeriaceae</em> and <em>Diaporthaceae</em> fungi have been recognized as main causes of wood diseases in walnut, with symptoms of dieback, canker, and blight. In winter 2017, samples were collected from different orchards in Valpara<strong>í</strong>so and Maule regions. Fungal isolates recovered were cultured, characterized morphologically, and identified using DNA sequence analyses. Three species (<em>Neofusicoccum</em> <em>parvum</em>, <em>Diplodia</em> <em>mutila</em>, <em>Diplodia</em> <em>seriata</em>) were characterized in <em>Botryosphaeriaceae</em> and two (<em>Diaporthe</em> <em>cynaroidis</em>, <em>Diaporthe</em> <em>australafricana</em>) in <em>Diaporthaceae</em>. Pathogenicity tests showed that <em>N. parvum</em> was the most aggressive species to walnut. This study confirmed the presence of pathogenic <em>Botryosphaeriaceae</em> and <em>Diaporthaceae</em> in <em>J</em>. <em>regia</em> that should be considered an increasing risk for the growing Chilean walnut industry.</span></p> Israel Jimenez Luna Ximena Besoain Sebastian Saa Elena Peach-Fine Fabiola Cadiz Morales Natalia Riquelme Alejandra Larach Javiera Morales Exequiel Ezcurra Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth Philippe E. Rolshausen Copyright (c) 2022 Israel Jimenez Luna, Ximena Besoain, Sebastian Saa, Elena Peach-Fine, Fabiola Cadiz Morales, Natalia Riquelme, Alejandra Larach, Javiera Morales, Exequiel Ezcurra, Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth, Philippe E. Rolshausen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 61 1 79 94 10.36253/phyto-12832 Activity of bacterial seed endophytes of landrace durum wheat for control of Fusarium foot rot https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/12993 <p class="p1">Five bacterial endophytic isolates obtained from durum wheat seeds (landrace “Timilia reste nere”) and identified as belonging to <em>Pantoea</em> (isolates A1, F7, F15 and G1) and <em>Paenibacillus </em>(isolate B) genera on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences, were assayed <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in</em> <em>vivo</em> for their ability to inhibit <em>Fusarium</em> <em>culmorum </em>growth and the disease (Fusarium foot rot) it causes in durum wheat. All isolates significantly reduced <em>in vitro </em>growth of <em>F</em>. <em>culmorum</em> in comparison with the control. After 120 hours of incubation, isolates B and G1 showed the greatest mycelial growth inhibition, i.e., respectively, 76 and 74%. When durum wheat “Simeto” seeds were treated with bacterial isolates singly or in combinations and then inoculated with <em>F</em>. <em>culmorum</em>, all treatments with endophytes showed increased, but not statistically significant, seed germination. Except for isolate A1, all bacterial isolates stimulated vegetative parameters of durum wheat seedlings. Mixture of isolates F7 + F15 was the most effective in improving shoot height (+94%), root length (+47%) and vigour index (+81%). Mixture of isolates A1 + B reduced Fusarium foot rot incidence (-21%) and severity (-30%), and isolate A1 reduced incidence (-15%) and severity (-16%) of the disease. These results indicate potential of bacterial seed endophytes, identified in this study, for control of Fusarium foot rot and suggest that bacterial seed endophytes may provide a new biocontrol agent for an environmentally sustainable durum wheat disease management programme.</p> Claudia Quartana Teresa Faddetta Letizia Anello Maria Di Bernardo Rosa Petralia Vito Campanella Copyright (c) 2022 Claudia Quartana, Teresa Faddetta, Letizia Anello, Maria Di Bernardo, Rosa Petralia, Vito Campanella https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 61 1 95 106 10.36253/phyto-12993 A cryptic powdery mildew (Golovinomyces hieraciorum sp. nov.) on Hieracium and Pilosella (Compositae) https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/12992 <p class="p1">The <em>Golovinomyces</em> <em>cichoracearum </em>complex is morphologically highly variable and causes powdery mildew on a wide range of <em>Compositae</em>, including <em>Hieracium </em>spp. and <em>Lapsana communis</em>. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of <em>Golovinomyces</em>, published in 2013, revealed that <em>G.</em> <em>cichoracearum</em> <em>s. str.</em> was confined to <em>Scorzonera</em> and <em>Tragopogon </em>spp. as hosts (<em>Compositae</em>, tribe <em>Lactuceae</em>, subtribe <em>Scorzonerinae</em>). To clarify the phylogeny and taxonomy of <em>Golovinomyces</em> on <em>Hieracium</em> spp. (<em>Compositae</em>, tribe <em>Lactuceae</em>, subtribe <em>Hieraciinae</em>), which is common in Asia and Europe, morphology and phylogenetic analyses of ITS + 28S rDNA sequences were conducted for 57 powdery mildew specimens of <em>Hieracium </em>spp. and <em>Lapsana communis</em>. <em>Golovinomyces </em>on <em>Hieracium </em>spp. in Asia and Europe, previously referred to as <em>G.</em> <em>cichoracearum</em>, is a previously undescribed, cryptic species, which is described here as <em>Golovinomyces hieraciorum </em>sp. nov.. Since a sequence retrieved from a powdery mildew on <em>Lapsana communis</em> in Switzerland clustered in sister position to the <em>G. hieraciorum</em> clade, numerous German specimens identified as <em>G. cichoracearum </em>were included in the present examinations. All the re-examined collections of “<em>G. cichoracearum</em>” on <em>L. communis</em> were misidentified, and were shown to belong to <em>Neoërysiphe nevoi</em> or <em>Podosphaera ergerontis-canadensis</em>.</p> Guan-Xiu Guan Shu-Yan Liu Uwe Braun Peng-Lei Qiu Jian Liu Feng-Yun Zhao Shu-Rong Tang Jia-Ni Li Van-Ninh Nguyen Copyright (c) 2022 Guan-Xiu Guan, Shu-Yan Liu, Uwe Braun, Peng-Lei Qiu, Jian Liu, Feng-Yun Zhao, Shu-Rong Tang, Jia-Ni Li, Van-Ninh Nguyen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 61 1 107 117 10.36253/phyto-12992 Mechanisms of resistance to powdery mildew in cucumber https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13313 <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><em>Podosphaera xanthii</em> causes powdery mildew of cucumber, and is associated with significant yield and quality losses. Development of resistant or tolerant varieties is the most effective and eco-friendly strategy for powdery mildew management. An important host resistance mechanism is based on the recognition of conserved resistance genes, resulting in durable resistance. To determine powdery mildew resistance mechanisms in cucumber, total RNAs were isolated from the powdery mildew resistant cultivar Meltem, the tolerant line VT18, and the susceptible local variety Camlica. Expression levels of nine genes in these plants were analysed by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The host reactions were assessed using microscope observations of stained specimens. <em>Serine/threonine</em> (<em>STN7)</em>, <em>transcription</em> <em>factor</em> (<em>WRKY22)</em>, <em>serine/threonine-protein kinase</em> (<em>D6PKL1</em>), and<em> serine/threonine receptor kinase </em>(<em>NFP</em>) genes were induced, as positive regulators in defence mechanisms against powdery mildew. <em>Polygalacturonase Inhibitor (PGIP</em>) did not express after <em>P. xanthii</em> inoculation of Camlica, resulting in susceptibility. After inoculation, <em>callose synthase (CALLOSE)</em> and <em>cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase</em> (<em>CAD</em>) gene expression levels were increased in resistant Meltem, but Hypersensitive Reaction (HR) and ROS formation were only linked in the tolerant VT18. Powdery mildew development was less in Meltem than in VT18, indicating that cell wall thickening and HR play separate roles in resistance to this disease.</span></p> Mumin Ibrahim TEK Ozer CALIS Copyright (c) 2022 Mumin Ibrahim TEK, Ozer CALIS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 61 1 119 127 10.36253/phyto-13313 Copper resistance mechanisms in plant pathogenic bacteria https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13282 <p class="p1">Copper is an essential element for microbes as it is involved in many redox reactions. Numerous resistance systems have been evolved in microbes to maintain copper homeostasis under copper stress conditions. These systems are responsible for the influx and efflux of copper ions in the cells. In phytopathogenic bacteria, copper ions play essential roles during disease development in plants. Copper-based chemicals are extensively used for control of diseases caused by bacteria, which leads to induced pathogen resistance derived from various copper resistance systems. Previous studies have shown that copper ions are harnessed by host plants to protect against bacterial infections, triggering immune responses through activation of defence signalling pathways. Thus, it was anticipated that bacterial copper resistance could play an alternative role in adaptation to plant immunity. This review summarizes current knowledge of copper resistance systems in plant pathogenic bacteria, which may provide a new perspective of molecular mechanisms associated with bacterial adaptation in host plants.</p> Xiaojing FAN Tahira SALEEM Huasong ZOU Copyright (c) 2022 Xiaojing FAN, Tahira SALEEM, Huasong ZOU https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 61 1 129 138 10.36253/phyto-13282 Characterization of Colletotrichum strains associated with olive anthracnose in Sicily https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13181 <p class="p1">Anthracnose caused by <em>Colletotrichum</em> spp. is the most damaging olive fruit disease in many countries, including Italy. This disease has been sporadically detected in Sicily, but new agronomic practices can increase risk of olive anthracnose in this region. An etiological study of the disease focused on local olive cultivars growing at the International Olive Germplasm Collection (IOGC) in Villa Zagaria, Enna, Sicily has been undertaken. During 2018 and 2019, 137 <em>Colletotrichum </em>strains were isolated from olives. Colony morphology, conidium characteristics, and multilocus sequence analyses aided identification of three species: <em>C. acutatum</em> (affecting 70% of symptomatic olives), <em>C. gloeosporioides,</em> and <em>C. cigarro</em>. Three <em>C. acutatum</em> strains (B13-16, P77, and P185), and one strain of each <em>C. gloeosporioides</em> (C2.1) and <em>C. cigarro</em> (Perg6B) were evaluated for pathogenicity on olive fruits from 11 Sicilian cultivars, known for their high-quality oil. Differences in virulence were detected among strains and their pathogenicity to the cultivars. The <em>C. acutatum</em> isolates were more virulent than those of <em>C. gloeosporioides</em> or <em>C. cigarro</em>. The Sicilian olive cultivars Cavaliera, Carolea, Calatina, and Nocellara del Belice were the most susceptible to the pathogen, while the cultivars Biancolilla and Nocellara Etnea were the most tolerant. Cultivar response under field conditions showed that anthracnose severity and fruit-rot incidence were positively correlated. This is the first report of <em>C. acutatum</em> and <em>C.</em> <em>cigarro </em>affecting olive trees in Sicily. Control measures for anthracnose depend on accurate characterization of the etiological agents and host cultivar resistance.</p> Grazia LICCIARDELLO Juan MORAL Maria Concetta STRANO Paola CARUSO Marika SCIARA Patrizia BELLA Guido SORRENTINO Silvia DI SILVESTRO Copyright (c) 2022 Grazia LICCIARDELLO, Juan MORAL, Maria Concetta STRANO, Paola CARUSO, Marika SCIARA, Patrizia BELLA, Guido SORRENTINO, Silvia DI SILVESTRO https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 61 1 139 151 10.36253/phyto-13181 Understanding the control strategies effective against the esca leaf stripe symptom: the edge hypothesis https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13295 <p class="p1">A peculiar symptom that may develop in grapevines affected by wood pathogens involved in the esca complex of diseases is the leaf stripe symptom, which also gives the name to the Grapevine Leaf Stripe Disease. Multiple studies have revealed strong links between fungal presence, wood symptomatology and expression of the leaf stripe symptom. However, numerous other factors have been shown to play roles in symptom onset, incidence, severity and yearly fluctuation of this disease. While the factors triggering the leaf stripe symptom are still under investigation, three control strategies have been proven effective for substantially reducing its expression, namely trunk surgery, and applications of sodium arsenite or a fertilizer mixture. These control strategies are examined here, including their (putative or confirmed) modes of action, and how they may influence the leaf stripe symptom development. In this article, we also propose the ‘edge’ hypothesis to tentatively explain symptoms onset, keeping in consideration past knowledge and recent advances in the understanding of the esca leaf stripe symptom. Ultimately, it is our intention to offer food-for-thought and stimulate debate within the phytopathological community.</p> Giovanni DEL FRARI Francesco CALZARANO Ricardo BOAVIDA FERREIRA Copyright (c) 2022 Giovanni DEL FRARI, Francesco CALZARANO, Ricardo BOAVIDA FERREIRA https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 61 1 153 164 10.36253/phyto-13295 Potato (Solanum tuberosum) - a new host for the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne inornata https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13355 <p class="p1">The tropical root-knot nematode (RKN) <em>Meloidogyne</em> <em>inornata</em> infects soybean, tobacco, yacon, common bean and <em>Anthurium andreanum</em>. This species was reported as the cause of damage in commercial yacon production in Brazil, and has potential to cause losses to common bean crops. Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em> L.) cv. Désirée infected with <em>M. inornata </em>exhibited typical RKN galls on roots and tuber surfaces, similar to those caused by the two quarantine pathogens <em>M. chitwoodi </em>and<em> M. fallax, </em>and the non-quarantine <em>M. luci</em>. This study has indicated that <em>M. inornata</em> has considerable potential to cause severe damage to potato tubers. The potential spread of this pathogen into new areas should be assessed, as it can damage potato tubers and could be a problem for economically important crops. Ensuring pest-free seed potatoes is important to prevent dissemination and establishment of <em>M. inornata</em> in uninfested areas. Phytosanitary measures and monitoring programmes developed to prevent spread of this pest in Europe may be warranted.</p> Barbara GERIČ STARE Nik SUSIČ Maja STAROVIČ Saša ŠIRCA Copyright (c) 2022 Barbara GERIČ STARE, Nik SUSIČ, Maja STAROVIČ, Saša ŠIRCA https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 61 1 165 168 10.36253/phyto-13355 Susceptibility of crop plants to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne luci, a threat to agricultural productivity https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13369 <p class="p1">The root-knot nematode (RKN) <em>Meloidogyne luci</em> is included in the Alert List of the European Plant Protection Organization, because it has potential negative impacts on economically important crops. Identification of plant species/cultivars resistant to <em>M. luci</em> is important for its management. Susceptibility of 35 commercial plant species/cultivars, from nine families to a <em>M. luci</em> isolate from Portugal was evaluated in pot assays, assessing root gall index (GI) and reproduction factor (Rf) 60 d after inoculation, with tomato ‘Coração-de-Boi’ used as the positive susceptible experimental control. Presence/absence of RKN resistance genes was also determined in the tomato and pepper cultivars. One cultivar of cabbage, three of lettuce, ten of pepper, one of sugar beet, and all the cultivars of Cucurbitaceae (five), Fabaceae (two) and Poaceae (one) were susceptible to <em>M. luci</em> (GI = 4-5; Rf = 2.1-152.3). One cultivar each of carrot, passion fruit, lettuce ‘Cocktail’, cabbage ‘Bacalan’, ‘Coração’ and ‘Lombarda’, and spinach ‘Tayto’ were resistant/hypersensitive (Rf &lt; 1; GI &gt; 2). The tomato ‘Actimino’, ‘Briomino’, ‘Veinal’ and ‘Vimeiro’, which carried at least one copy of the <em>Mi</em>-<em>1.2</em> gene, were resistant to the nematode (GI = 1-2; 0.0 &lt; Rf &lt; 0.1). These results indicate that the tomato cultivars have potential to contribute to reduction of <em>M. luci</em> populations in agro-ecosystems and improve the crop yields.</p> Carla MALEITA António CORREIA Isabel ABRANTES Ivânia ESTEVES Copyright (c) 2022 Carla MALEITA, António CORREIA, Isabel ABRANTES, Ivânia ESTEVES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 61 1 169 179 10.36253/phyto-13369 Abstracts of invited, oral and poster papers presented at the 16th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, April 4–8, 2022, in Limassol, Cyprus https://oajournals.fupress.net/index.php/pm/article/view/13613 <p class="p1">The 16th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union (MPU2022) took place in Limassol, Cyprus from 4–8 April, 2022. Plant pathologists from the region and beyond celebrated the 60th anniversary of the Union and the 62 years of publication of <em>Phytopathologia Mediterranea</em> as a top level plant pathology journal.</p> <p class="p1">MPU2022 entitled “Safeguarding Mediterranean Plant Health” promoted dissemination of the latest scientific advances, and facilitated dialogue and collaboration between researchers interested in all aspects of Phytopathology. This conference also addressed wider perspectives in scientific fields not previously explored at MPU Congresses, including abiotic stresses, biopesticides, forest pathology, smart agriculture and gender equality in research, funding, teaching and professional development.</p> <p class="p2">Papers presented at the Congress included 83 oral presentations, including 15 keynote presentations from leading scientists, and 63 poster presentations, covering all areas of plant pathology and plant stress research, from 130 participants. Five special sessions in cutting edge subjects were organised. A special session was organised jointly with the Arab Society of Plant Protection. All these scientific contributions are part of this issue.</p> Laura Mugnai Copyright (c) 2022 Phytopathologia Mediterranea https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 61 1 181 239 10.36253/phyto-13613